Conquering Parkinson's One Micron at a Time


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Conquering Parkinson's One Micron at a Time

  1. 1. CONQUERING Parkinson’s One Micron at a time Principles of Biomedical Science Michelle Casey Danielle Krafft Wesley R. McCammon
  2. 2. IMAGINE
  3. 4. Purpose Statement <ul><li>Parkinson’s patients suffer from neuromuscular symptoms that are often debilitating.   </li></ul><ul><li>This could lead to the treatment of neuromuscular signaling and our team’s goal of designing a biocomputer through nanobiotechnology to control the neuromuscular junction.   </li></ul><ul><li>The biocomputer then could take over the function of the neurons and circumvent the both protein build-up and lack of dopamine that is commonly found in Parkinson’s patients. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Project Overview <ul><li>Design and develop molecule-sized machines </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the ability to use these machines to improve the quality of life for all humanity.   </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate muscle cells at the neuromuscular junctions and restore, at least in part, the functioning of the muscle cells.   </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate nervous signals that would coordinate with normal brain function.   </li></ul>
  5. 6. Project Overview <ul><li>Nanites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reverse degenerative conditions such as the removal of plaques and tangles that are believed to cause Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repair of dopamine-containing cells at the root of Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Project Overview <ul><li>Other possibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remotely repair space craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair damaged electrons from the inside out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terraform entire planets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spy on terrorist states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaponry or to disable another aggressors weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality of life for all humanity seems endless. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Problem Statement <ul><li>Parkinson’s disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>affects about 500,000 people in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50,000 new cases each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected to increase as the average age of individuals increases due to the fact that the average age of onset is 60.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple studies on the cause of Parkinson’s disease.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic or due to environmental causes.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment has been difficult for Parkinson’s patients.   </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Problem Statement <ul><li>The nanites are needed in order to improve the quality of life of Parkinson’s patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack dopamine producing cells in the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build-up of a protein known as synuclein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most patients will exhibit what is commonly known as tremors and bradykinesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanites - circumvent the abnormalities in the brain and go directly to the neuromuscular junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients would begin to experience less tremors, reduced bradykinesia, and overcome depression caused by the stress of the disease. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Problem Statement <ul><li>Current treatment has focused on the dopamine producing cells and attempts to reduce the amount of synuclein. </li></ul><ul><li>Biocomputers would allow doctors to treat patients regardless of the cause of the disease </li></ul><ul><li>Go straight to the site of muscle function </li></ul><ul><li>Not important to determine the patient’s individual cause of the disease instead the can restore muscle function. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Project Methodology – Goals and Objectives <ul><li>To effectively engineer a biocomputer (nanite) that would be able to properly control the muscle function of Parkinson’s patients and be less than 10 μm in diameter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the control circuitry needed to run the various programs required to carry out the function of the nanite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct various tests and case studies on Parkinson’s Patients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the physical structure of the nanite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct computer code to run the nanite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct virtual tests of the nanite using computer simulation software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what biological components can be integrated into the nanite to decreasing size while increases storage capacity, speed, and response time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the components needed to stimulate the muscle cells of the Parkinson’s Patient and determine the role of the nanite in this stimulation process. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Project Methodology – Goals and Objectives <ul><li>To determine a method of entry into the body allowing the nanites to specifically target the neuro-muscular junction without risk of immune system response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a method of entry for the nanites into the human body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the programming necessary to recognize specific neuro-muscular junctions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a method to “mask” the nanite from the human immune system.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine a renewable, rechargeable energy source so that the nanites will last the longest possible time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a system whereby the nanites can be safely removed from the body (i.e. in waste from the digestive system or urine from the excretory system.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a safety fail-safe system whereby the nanites can be deactivated instantly if they malfunction (i.e.. negative feedback system, computer program deactivation, or perhaps an enzyme trigger that makes the nanite susceptible to the immune response.) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Project Methodology – Goals and Objectives <ul><li>To effectively apply the biocomputers to the Human test subjects and test and monitor the patient based on overall health, physical abilities, physical pain, short-term recovery, and long-term recovery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate a long-term (of 10 years) and short-term (3-5 years) case study on Parkinson’s patients, starting with a base line reading before initial trials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop criteria to evaluation the items mentioned in the goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine evaluation criteria to merit a “successful” implementation of the nanites in human subjects. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Available Resources Available Resources <ul><li>Center for Intergraded Nanotechnologies   </li></ul><ul><li>Center of Nanotechnology at the Ames Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Methodist Hospital   </li></ul><ul><li>The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for BioNanotechnology in Medicine (IBNAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology Industries Association (ltd) </li></ul><ul><li>The National Nanotechnology Initiative </li></ul>
  14. 15. Summary and Evaluation <ul><li>Drastically change the face of medicine and nanobiotechnology.   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s patients - normal life without tremors and side affects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies will begin to show the benefits of these biocomputer-nanites.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medical trials will begin with weekly appointments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the effectiveness of the treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure their safety in regards to any possible side affects of treatment.   </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Summary and Evaluation <ul><li>Focus on measuring (after treatment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the amount of tremors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bradykinesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete surveys to measure the overall quality of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once patients are determined to be adjusting well to the nanite treatment/therapy, then they will be moved to a longitudinal study. </li></ul></ul>