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Chapter 8 Notes


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Chapter 8 Notes

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Lecture Outline Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  2. 2. Vitamins <ul><li>Essential organic substances </li></ul><ul><li>Produce deficiency symptoms when missing from diet </li></ul><ul><li>Yield no energy </li></ul><ul><li>Basic functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate energy-yielding chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function as co-enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble vitamins </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fun Facts <ul><li>Vitamins were named in order of discovery (A, B, C, D, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Other substances found not to be essential were dropped (e.g., vitamin P) </li></ul><ul><li>B-vitamins were thought to be one vitamin; turned out to be many (e.g., B1, B2, B3,…) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vital Dietary Components <ul><li>Megadose (>3-10x needs as a starting point) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved useful in treating certain conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant and animal foods provide vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Most synthesized vitamins work equally well in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists believe they have discovered all the vitamins </li></ul>
  5. 5. Storage of Vitamins in the Body <ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not readily excreted (except vitamin K) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally lost from the body (except vitamins B-6 and B-12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excreted via urine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vitamins should be consumed daily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional lapse is harmless </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Vitamin Toxicity <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can accumulate in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can cause toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly likely due to supplementation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Preservation of Vitamins <ul><li>Decreased vitamin content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to light, heat, air, water, and alkalinity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eat foods soon after harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Freeze foods not consumed within a few days </li></ul><ul><li>Blanching destroys enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slows down vitamin degradation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Preservation Tips
  9. 9. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Overview <ul><li>Dissolve in organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Not readily excreted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorbed along with fat </li></ul><ul><li>Fat malabsorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transported with fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In lipoproteins </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Vitamin A <ul><li>Narrow optimal intake range </li></ul><ul><li>Preformed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retinoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in animal products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proformed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in plant products </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Functions of Vitamin A <ul><li>Promote vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Night blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote growth </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent drying of the skin and eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerophthalmia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote immune function and resistance to bacterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Acne medication </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food Sources of Vitamin A
  13. 13. Recommended Amounts for Vitamin A <ul><li>900  g REA for men </li></ul><ul><li>700  g REA for women </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Value is 1000  g (REA) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Level is 3000  g (REA of preformed) </li></ul><ul><li>Much stored in the liver </li></ul><ul><li>No separate RDA for carotenoids </li></ul>
  14. 14. Toxicity of Vitamin A <ul><li>Large intake of vitamin A (preformed) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over a long period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Accutane and Retin-A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone/muscle pain, loss of appetite, skin disorders, headache, dry skin, hair loss, increased liver size, vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal malformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible permanent damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of high carotenoid intake </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vitamin D <ul><li>Prohormone </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesized from sun exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunscreen SPF > 8 decreases synthesis 95% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expose hands, face, arms 2-3 x/week for 5-10 minutes each time (more for darker skin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insufficient sun exposure makes this a vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>Activated by enzymes in liver and kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency can cause disease </li></ul>
  16. 16. Activation of Vitamin D
  17. 17. Functions of Vitamin D <ul><li>Regulates blood calcium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along with the parathyroid hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates calcium + phosphorus absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces kidney excretion of calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates calcium deposition in bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences normal cell development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to reduction of breast, colon, and prostate cancer </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Role in Bone Formation <ul><li>Causes calcium + phosphorus to deposit in the bones </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens bones </li></ul><ul><li>Rickets is the result of low vitamin D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breastfed infants with little sun exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteomalacia (soft bones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rickets-like disease in adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones lose minerals and become porous </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Food Sources of Vitamin D <ul><li>Fatty fish (salmon, herring) </li></ul><ul><li>Fortified milk </li></ul><ul><li>Some fortified cereal </li></ul>
  20. 20. Adequate Intake (AI) for Vitamin D <ul><li>5  g/day (200 IU/day) for adults under age 51 </li></ul><ul><li>10-15  g/day (400 - 600 IU/day) for older adults </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement if a breastfed infant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(See physician for details) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Toxicity Warning <ul><li>Vitamin D can be very toxic, especially in infancy and childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Level is 50 µ g/day </li></ul><ul><li>Results in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-absorption of calcium (hypercalcemia), increase calcium excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium deposits in organs and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth retardation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Vitamin E <ul><li>Fat-soluble antioxidant </li></ul><ul><li>Resides mostly on cell membranes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Other Functions of Vitamin E <ul><li>Protects double bonds in unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Improves vitamin A absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown of cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA for adults is 15 mg/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many adults are not meeting this goal </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Food Sources of Vitamin E
  25. 25. Toxicity of Vitamin E <ul><li>Upper Level is 1,000 mg/day (supplementary alpha-tocopherol) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Level is 1500 IU (natural sources) or 1100 IU (synthetic forms) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibit vitamin K metabolism and anticoagulants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible hemorrhage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness, headaches, nausea </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Vitamin K (“Koagulation”) <ul><li>Synthesized by bacteria in the colon and absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Role in coagulation process </li></ul><ul><li>Role in calcium-binding potential </li></ul>
  27. 27. Food Sources of Vitamin K <ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Green leafy vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul><ul><li>Peas </li></ul><ul><li>Green beans </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to cooking losses </li></ul><ul><li>Limited vitamin K stored in the body </li></ul>
  28. 28. Adequate Intake for Vitamin K <ul><li>90 µ g/day for women </li></ul><ul><li>120 µ g/day for men </li></ul><ul><li>Excess vitamins A and E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interferes with vitamin K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause hemorrhage and fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newborns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routinely injected with vitamin K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast milk is a poor source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity unlikely; readily excreted </li></ul>
  29. 29. Overview of Water-Soluble Vitamins <ul><li>Dissolve in water </li></ul><ul><li>Generally readily excreted from body </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to cooking losses </li></ul><ul><li>Function as coenzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in energy metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>50-90% of B vitamins are absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal deficiency more common </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment Act </li></ul>
  30. 30. Thiamin <ul><li>Sensitive to alkalinity and heat </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzyme form used in energy metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency: Beriberi </li></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 mg/day for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 mg/day for men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most exceed RDA in diet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surplus is rapidly lost in urine; non-toxic </li></ul>
  31. 31. Food Sources of Thiamin
  32. 32. Riboflavin <ul><li>Coenzyme forms participate in energy-yielding metabolic pathways </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheilosis, inflammation of mouth and tongue, dermatitis, sensitivity to sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 mg/day for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 mg/day for men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average intake above RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-toxic </li></ul>
  33. 33. Food Sources of Riboflavin <ul><li>Milk/milk products </li></ul><ul><li>Enriched grains/cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Brewer’s yeast </li></ul>
  34. 34. Niacin <ul><li>Coenzyme forms used in energy metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pellagra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 D’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 mg/day for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 mg/day for men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Level is 35 mg/day </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Food Sources of Niacin <ul><li>Enriched grains </li></ul><ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken/turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Heat stable; little cooking loss </li></ul><ul><li>60 mg tryptophan can be converted into 1 mg niacin </li></ul>
  36. 36. Pantothenic Acid <ul><li>Part of Coenzyme-A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in combination with other deficiencies </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Food Sources of Pantothenic Acid <ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Peanuts </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Intake = 5 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Average intake meets AI </li></ul>
  38. 38. Biotin <ul><li>Free and bound form </li></ul><ul><li>Co-enzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism of carbohydrate and fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps breakdown certain amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency – rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaly, inflamed skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in tongue, lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Food Sources of Biotin <ul><li>Cauliflower, egg yolk, liver, peanuts, cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal synthesis of biotin contributes very little </li></ul><ul><li>Avidin inhibits absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than a dozen raw egg whites a day to cause this effect </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Biotin Needs <ul><li>Adequate intake is 30 µ g/day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>No Upper Level for biotin </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively nontoxic </li></ul>
  41. 41. Vitamin B-6 <ul><li>Coenzyme forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate enzymes needed for metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize nonessential amino acids via transamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize hemoglobin and WBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role in homocysteine metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Food Sources of Vitamin B-6
  43. 43. RDA for Vitamin B-6 <ul><li>1.3 mg/day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 mg/day for men over 50 </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 mg/day for women over 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Value set at 2 mg </li></ul><ul><li>Average intake is more than RDA </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes may need more </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol increases vitamin B-6 destruction </li></ul>
  44. 44. Vitamin B-6 As a Medicine? <ul><li>50-100 mg/day therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable treatment of PMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May treat pregnancy hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carpal tunnel syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Morning sickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(100 mg/day may help; see Ch. 13) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxicity potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 200 mg/day can lead to irreversible nerve damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upper Level set at 100 mg/day </li></ul>
  45. 45. Folate <ul><li>Coenzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homocysteine metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat, oxidation, ultraviolet light </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Folate Deficiency <ul><li>Megaloblast cells </li></ul><ul><li>Megaloblastic Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul>
  47. 49. Food Sources of Folate <ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Fortified breakfast cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Grains, legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Orange juice </li></ul>
  48. 50. RDA for Folate <ul><li>400 µ g/day for adults </li></ul><ul><li>600 µ g/day for pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Excess intake can mask vitamin B-12 deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Level 1 mg (synthetic form) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folate in food has limited absorption </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Vitamin B-12 <ul><li>Synthesized by bacteria and fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role in folate metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of the myelin sheaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RBC formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pernicious anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve degeneration and paralysis </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. B-12 Absorption <ul><li>Requires a protein from salivary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Requires stomach acid </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the intrinsic factor </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed in the last part of the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>About 50% of B-12 is absorbed </li></ul>
  51. 53. Therapy for Ineffective Absorption <ul><li>Many factors can disrupt this process </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly injections of vitamin B-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B-12 nasal gel </li></ul><ul><li>Megadoses of vitamin B-12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for passive diffusion </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Food Sources of Vitamin B-12 <ul><li>Synthesized by bacteria, fungi and algae </li></ul><ul><li>(Stored primarily in the liver of animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal products </li></ul><ul><li>Organ meat </li></ul><ul><li>Seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Hot dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul>
  53. 55. RDA for Vitamin B-12 <ul><li>2.4 µ g/day for adults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over age 50 meet needs with a crystalline source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average intake exceeds RDA </li></ul><ul><li>B-12 stored in the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Non-toxic </li></ul>
  54. 56. Vitamin C <ul><li>Synthesized by most animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not by humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreased absorption with high intakes </li></ul><ul><li>Excess excreted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking/heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron, copper, oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  55. 57. Functions of Vitamin C <ul><li>Synthesis of collagen </li></ul><ul><li>Iron absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Immune functions </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidant? </li></ul>
  56. 58. Deficiency of Vitamin C <ul><li>Scurvy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficient for 20-40 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleeding gums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with poverty </li></ul></ul>
  57. 59. Food Sources of Vitamin C <ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Green pepper </li></ul><ul><li>Cauliflower </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>Romaine lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach </li></ul>
  58. 60. RDA for Vitamin C <ul><li>90 mg/day for adult males </li></ul><ul><li>75 mg/day for adult females </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Value is 60 mg </li></ul><ul><li>+35 mg/day for smokers </li></ul><ul><li>Average intake 70-100 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Level is 2 g/day </li></ul>
  59. 61. Choline <ul><li>Essential nutrient, though not a vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>All tissues contain choline </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor for acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor for phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Some role in homocysteine metabolism </li></ul>
  60. 62. Food Sources of Choline <ul><li>Widely distributed in foods </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Peanuts </li></ul><ul><li>Lecithin added to food </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency rare </li></ul>
  61. 63. Needs for Choline <ul><li>Adequate Intake is 550 mg/day for males </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Intake is 425 mg/day for females </li></ul><ul><li>Average intake is ~700-1000 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>High doses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with fishy body odor, vomiting, salivation, sweating, hypotension, GI effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upper Level is 3.5 grams/day </li></ul>
  62. 64. Vitamin-like Compounds <ul><li>Choline </li></ul><ul><li>Carnitine </li></ul><ul><li>Inositol </li></ul><ul><li>Taurine </li></ul><ul><li>Lipoic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesized in the body at the expense of amino acids and other nutrients </li></ul>
  63. 65. Functions in the Body
  64. 66. Dietary Supplements
  65. 67. Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>A dietary substance to supplement the diet </li></ul>