Chapter 38


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Chapter 38

  1. 1. Mader's Concepts in Biology, First Edition Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, InC) Permission required for reproduction or display. Sylvia S. Mader Chapter 38
  2. 2. Question 1 <ul><li>Organisms which recycle nutrients within ecosystems are primarily known as: </li></ul><ul><li>A. producers </li></ul><ul><li>B. consumers </li></ul><ul><li>C. autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>D. scavengers </li></ul><ul><li>E. decomposers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Question 2 <ul><li>If you were studying organisms (not bacteria and fungi) that feed on dead organic matter you would most likely be studying which of the following? </li></ul><ul><li>A. autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>B. decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>C. scavengers </li></ul><ul><li>D. primary producers </li></ul><ul><li>E. secondary producers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Question 3 <ul><li>Interaction between two species as both attempt to use the same environmental resources is: </li></ul><ul><li>A. competition </li></ul><ul><li>B. a community </li></ul><ul><li>C. an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>D. predation </li></ul><ul><li>E. symbiosis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Question 4 <ul><li>Which term describes the concept that no two species can have the same role in the community at the same time? </li></ul><ul><li>A. niche </li></ul><ul><li>B. habitat </li></ul><ul><li>C. competitive exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>D. mimicry </li></ul><ul><li>E. symbiosis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Question 5 <ul><li>A frog is found along the edge of a pond. This area would be the frog’s: </li></ul><ul><li>A. ecological niche </li></ul><ul><li>B. ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>C. biotic component </li></ul><ul><li>D. abiotic component </li></ul><ul><li>E. ecology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Question 6 <ul><li>In large natural ecosystems, competition between two species over time will usually result in: </li></ul><ul><li>A. resource partitioning with each species occupying a slightly different niche </li></ul><ul><li>B. equal numbers of each species persisting for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>C. death of all members of one species within a short time </li></ul><ul><li>D. hybridization between the two species </li></ul><ul><li>E. death of both species </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question 7 <ul><li>A biologist is studying the phenomenon where the characteristics tend to diverge when similar species belong to the same community. Based on this information you would conclude that he or she is studying: </li></ul><ul><li>A. competitive exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>B. extinction of one species </li></ul><ul><li>C. hybridization </li></ul><ul><li>D. character displacement </li></ul><ul><li>E. mimicry </li></ul>
  9. 9. Question 8 <ul><li>Which of the following potential resources is not subject to competition between two different species? </li></ul><ul><li>A. food </li></ul><ul><li>B. water </li></ul><ul><li>C. mates </li></ul><ul><li>D. sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>E. space </li></ul>
  10. 10. Question 9 <ul><li>If you were studying the interaction between two species in which one feeds on the other you would be studying which of the following? </li></ul><ul><li>A. competition </li></ul><ul><li>B. resource partitioning </li></ul><ul><li>C. competitive exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>D. predation </li></ul><ul><li>E. commensalism </li></ul>
  11. 11. Question 10 <ul><li>Which of the following is correct in a predator-prey cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>A. a decline in the number of predators causes a decline in the number of prey </li></ul><ul><li>B. a decline in the number of prey causes a decline in the number of predators </li></ul><ul><li>C. an increase in the number of predators triggers an increase in the number of prey </li></ul><ul><li>D. generally prey are unaffected by predators </li></ul><ul><li>E. predators will always cause the prey to go extinct </li></ul>
  12. 12. Question 11 <ul><li>Overall, the most scientifically correct viewpoint toward predators is: </li></ul><ul><li>A. predators help keep prey populations from overexploiting limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>B. ecosystems support healthier populations when predators are removed from the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>C. there is a high level of cruelty and indiscriminate killing among large predators </li></ul><ul><li>D. when predators are eliminated the conditions of other animal populations improve </li></ul><ul><li>E. predators play a neutral role in ecosystems </li></ul>
  13. 13. Question 12 <ul><li>The ability of some animals to blend into the background is known as camouflage. </li></ul><ul><li>A. true </li></ul><ul><li>B. false </li></ul>
  14. 14. Question 13 <ul><li>A biologist is studying a type of prey defense which tells a predator that the prey is potentially dangerous. Based on this information you would conclude that he or she is studying: </li></ul><ul><li>A. cryptic coloration </li></ul><ul><li>B. mimic coloration </li></ul><ul><li>C. camouflage coloration </li></ul><ul><li>D. dark coloration </li></ul><ul><li>E. warning coloration </li></ul>
  15. 15. Question 14 <ul><li>The harmless orange and black viceroy butterfly closely resembles the toxic orange and black monarch butterfly. This is an example of: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Mullerian mimicry </li></ul><ul><li>B. Batesian mimicry </li></ul><ul><li>C. both Mullerian mimicry and Batesian mimicry </li></ul><ul><li>D. resource partitioning </li></ul><ul><li>E. competitive exclusion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Question 15 <ul><li>Mimics that share the same protective defense are called: </li></ul><ul><li>A. cryptic mimics </li></ul><ul><li>B. warning mimics </li></ul><ul><li>C. Mullerian mimics </li></ul><ul><li>D. camouflage mimics </li></ul><ul><li>E. Batesian mimics </li></ul>
  17. 17. Question 16 <ul><li>Which statement is not true about parasitism? </li></ul><ul><li>A. the host is generally larger than the parasite </li></ul><ul><li>B. parasites are always severe and usually kill their host </li></ul><ul><li>C. smaller parasites often live as endoparasites within the body of the host </li></ul><ul><li>D. ectoparasites are attached to the outside of the host's body </li></ul><ul><li>E. some parasites and all viruses are obligate parasites and must live inside the host </li></ul>
  18. 18. Question 17 <ul><li>If you were studying a type of relationship where one species benefits and the other species is injured but not killed by the relationship you would be studying: </li></ul><ul><li>A. predation </li></ul><ul><li>B. mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>C. parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>D. commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>E. competition </li></ul>
  19. 19. Question 18 <ul><li>A form of symbiosis in which one participant benefits and the other apparently is not benefited nor harmed is: </li></ul><ul><li>A. commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>B. parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>C. mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>D. predation </li></ul><ul><li>E. competition </li></ul>
  20. 20. Question 19 <ul><li>An example of commensalism is: </li></ul><ul><li>A. mycorrhizal fungal filaments on the roots of plants </li></ul><ul><li>B. ants living on the bullhorn acacia tree </li></ul><ul><li>C. termites with protozoa in their digestive tracts </li></ul><ul><li>D. flowering plants and their pollinators </li></ul><ul><li>E. clown fishes in sea anemones </li></ul>
  21. 21. Question 20 <ul><li>An intimate relationship between two species in which coevolution and adaptation occur is best described by which of the following terms? </li></ul><ul><li>A. competition </li></ul><ul><li>B. a community </li></ul><ul><li>C. an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>D. symbiosis </li></ul><ul><li>E. ecological niche </li></ul>
  22. 22. Answer Key – Chapter 38 <ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul>