Chapter 37 Communities and Ecosystems 0
<ul><li>Dining In </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wasp called  Apanteles glomeratus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lays its eggs...
<ul><ul><li>This same phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in other wasp populations </li></ul></ul></ul>0 A c...
<ul><ul><li>Interactions such as these between organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are examples of interactions that ...
<ul><li>37.1 A community includes all the organisms inhabiting a particular area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A biological commun...
<ul><ul><li>Communities are characterized by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>37.2 Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interspecific competition </li>...
<ul><ul><li>The competitive exclusion principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States that two species cannot coexist in a...
<ul><ul><li>One outcome of competition is resource partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where one of the species ma...
<ul><li>37.3 Predation leads to diverse adaptations in both predator and prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation is an intera...
<ul><ul><li>Some prey gain protection through  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage or chemical defenses </li></ul></...
<ul><ul><li>Some prey gain protection through mimicry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “copycat” adaptation in which one s...
<ul><li>37.4 Predation can maintain diversity in a community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A keystone predator may maintain commun...
<ul><ul><li>Removal of a keystone predator from a community  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause major changes in com...
<ul><li>37.5 Herbivores and the plants they eat have various adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Some herbivore-plant interactions illustrate coevolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or reciprocal evolutio...
<ul><li>37.6 Symbiotic relationships help structure communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A symbiotic relationship </li></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>In parasitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A parasite obtains food at the expense of its host </li></ul></ul...
<ul><ul><li>In commensalism  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One species benefits while the other is unaffected </li></ul><...
<ul><li>37.7 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbances are events that </l...
<ul><ul><li>Ecological succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a transition in species composition of a community fol...
<ul><ul><li>Primary succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the gradual colonization of barren rocks </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Secondary succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs after a disturbance has destroyed a community but l...
<ul><li>37.8 Fire specialist Max Moritz discusses the role of fire in ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Max Moritz </li...
<ul><ul><li>Fire is a key abiotic factor in many ecosystems </li></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.8B
<ul><li>37.9 Trophic structure is a key factor in community dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every community has a trophic s...
<ul><ul><li>Trophic structures can be represented by food chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The stepwise flow of energ...
<ul><ul><li>Detritivores (animal scavengers, fungi, and prokaryotes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose waste matter...
<ul><li>37.10 Food chains interconnect, forming food webs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A food web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>37.11 Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ecosystem </li></ul><...
<ul><li>37.12 Primary production sets the energy budget for ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary production </li></ul>...
<ul><li>37.13 Energy supply limits the length of food chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pyramid of production </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Only about 10% of the energy stored at each trophic level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is available to the n...
<ul><li>37.14 A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A field of corn </li></u...
<ul><li>37.15 Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients recycle...
<ul><li>37.16 Water moves through the biosphere in a global cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>37.17 The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon is taken from the at...
<ul><li>37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various bacteria in soil </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Detritivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose organic matter and recycle nitrogen to plants </li></ul>...
<ul><li>37.19 The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus and other soil miner...
<ul><li>37.20 Ecosystem alteration can upset chemical cycling </li></ul>ECOSYSTEM ALTERATION  CONNECTION 0
<ul><ul><li>Ecosystem studies show that drastic alterations, such as the total removal of vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Environmental changes caused by humans, such as acid precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can unbalanc...
<ul><li>37.21 David Schindler talks about the effects of nutrients on freshwater ecosystems </li></ul>TALKING ABOUT SCIENC...
<ul><ul><li>Nutrient runoff from agricultural lands and large livestock operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May caus...
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Chapter 37

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Chapter 37

  1. 1. Chapter 37 Communities and Ecosystems 0
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dining In </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wasp called Apanteles glomeratus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lays its eggs inside the caterpillar larva of the cabbage white butterfly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The eggs of the wasp will develop into larvae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which will eat the caterpillar from the inside </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Apanteles glomeratus A cabbage white butterfly ( pieris rapae )
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>This same phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in other wasp populations </li></ul></ul></ul>0 A chalcid wasp An ichneumon wasp
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Interactions such as these between organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are examples of interactions that occur in biological communities </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  5. 5. <ul><li>37.1 A community includes all the organisms inhabiting a particular area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A biological community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is an assemblage of all the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction </li></ul></ul></ul>STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF COMMUNITIES 0 Figure 37.1
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Communities are characterized by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response to disturbance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trophic structure </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  7. 7. <ul><li>37.2 Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interspecific competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs between two species if they both require the same limited resource </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A species’ niche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes its total use of biotic and abiotic resources </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>The competitive exclusion principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States that two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Chthamalus Balanus High tide Chthamalus realized niche Balanus realized niche Low tide Ocean Figure 37.2A
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>One outcome of competition is resource partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where one of the species may evolve enough through natural selection to use a different set of resources </li></ul></ul></ul>0 A. distichus A. aliniger A. etheridgei A. cybotes A. christophei A. ricordii A. insolitus A. insolitus perches on shady branches. A. distichus perches on sunny surfaces. Figure 37.2B
  10. 10. <ul><li>37.3 Predation leads to diverse adaptations in both predator and prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation is an interaction between species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which one species, the predator, kills and eats another, the prey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The adaptations of both predators and prey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be refined through natural selection </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Some prey gain protection through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage or chemical defenses </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.3A Figure 37.3B
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Some prey gain protection through mimicry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “copycat” adaptation in which one species mimics the appearance of another </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.3C Figure 37.3D
  13. 13. <ul><li>37.4 Predation can maintain diversity in a community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A keystone predator may maintain community diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By reducing the numbers of the strongest competitors </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.4A
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Removal of a keystone predator from a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause major changes in community dynamics </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.4B
  15. 15. <ul><li>37.5 Herbivores and the plants they eat have various adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are animals that have adaptations for eating plants or algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce toxic chemicals to protect against herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Some herbivore-plant interactions illustrate coevolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or reciprocal evolutionary adaptations </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Eggs Sugar deposits Figure 37.5
  17. 17. <ul><li>37.6 Symbiotic relationships help structure communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A symbiotic relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is an interaction between two or more species that live together in direct contact </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>In parasitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A parasite obtains food at the expense of its host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogens are parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That are often lethal to their hosts </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.6A
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>In commensalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One species benefits while the other is unaffected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In mutualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both partners benefit </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.6B
  20. 20. <ul><li>37.7 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbances are events that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage biological communities, remove organisms from them, and alter the availability of resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are characteristic of most communities </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Ecological succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a transition in species composition of a community following a disturbance </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Primary succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the gradual colonization of barren rocks </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Retreating glacier with moraine in the foreground Dryas stage Spruce starting to appear in the alder and cottonwood forest Spruce and hemlock forest Figure 37.7
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Secondary succession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs after a disturbance has destroyed a community but left the soil intact </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  24. 24. <ul><li>37.8 Fire specialist Max Moritz discusses the role of fire in ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Max Moritz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a wildland fire specialist who studies fire in chaparral ecosystems </li></ul></ul></ul>TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE 0 Figure 37.8A
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Fire is a key abiotic factor in many ecosystems </li></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.8B
  26. 26. <ul><li>37.9 Trophic structure is a key factor in community dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every community has a trophic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A pattern of feeding relationships consisting of several different levels </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Trophic structures can be represented by food chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The stepwise flow of energy and nutrients from plants (producers), to herbivores (primary consumers), to carnivores (secondary and higher-level consumers) </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Quaternary consumers Trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Hawk Snake Mouse Grasshopper Plant Phytoplankton Zooplankton Herring Tuna Killer whale Figure 37.9 A terrestrial food chain An aquatic food chain
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Detritivores (animal scavengers, fungi, and prokaryotes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose waste matter and recycle nutrients in ecosystems </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  29. 29. <ul><li>37.10 Food chains interconnect, forming food webs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A food web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a key biotic factor in many ecosystems </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.10 Quaternary, tertiary, and secondary consumers Tertiary and Secondary consumers Secondary and Primary consumers Producers (plants) Primary consumers
  30. 30. <ul><li>37.11 Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a community and the abiotic factors with which it interacts </li></ul></ul></ul>ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS 0 Figure 37.11 Chemical cycling Energy flow Light energy Chemical energy Chemical elements Heat energy
  31. 31. <ul><li>37.12 Primary production sets the energy budget for ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the rate at which producers convert sunlight to chemical energy in organic matter, or biomass </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Open ocean Estuary Algal beds and coral reefs Desert and semidesert scrub Tundra Temperate grassland Cultivated land Boreal forest (taiga) Savanna Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rain forest 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Average net primary productivity (g/m 2 /yr) Figure 37.12
  32. 32. <ul><li>37.13 Energy supply limits the length of food chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pyramid of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the flow of energy from producers to primary consumers and to higher trophic levels </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.13 Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers 10 kcal 100 kcal 1,000 kcal 10,000 kcal 1,000,000 kcal of sunlight
  33. 33. <ul><ul><li>Only about 10% of the energy stored at each trophic level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is available to the next level </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  34. 34. <ul><li>37.14 A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A field of corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can support many more human vegetarians than meat-eaters </li></ul></ul></ul>CONNECTION 0 Figure 37.14 Trophic level Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers Human vegetarians Corn Human meat-eaters Cattle Corn
  35. 35. <ul><li>37.15 Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients recycle between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms and abiotic reservoirs </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Consumers Producers Nutrients available to producers Abiotic reservoir Detritivores 3 2 1 4 Figure 37.15
  36. 36. <ul><li>37.16 Water moves through the biosphere in a global cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drives the global water cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Transport over land Solar energy Net movement of water vapor by wind Runoff and groundwater Percolation through soil Precipitation over land Evaporation and transpiration from land Precipitation over ocean Figure 37.16 Evaporation from ocean
  37. 37. <ul><li>37.17 The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon is taken from the atmosphere by photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to make organic molecules, and returned to the atmosphere by cellular respiration </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.17 CO 2 in atmosphere Photosynthesis Cellular respiration Burning of fossil fuels and wood Carbon compounds in water Detritus Primary consumers Higher-level consumers Decomposition
  38. 38. <ul><li>37.18 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various bacteria in soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert gaseous N 2 to compounds that plants use: ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 – ) </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.18 Nitrogen in atmosphere (N 2 ) Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes Detritivores Decomposition Ammonium (NH 4 + ) Nitrates (NO 3 – ) Assimilation by plants Denitrifying bacteria Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Nitrifying bacteria
  39. 39. <ul><ul><li>Detritivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose organic matter and recycle nitrogen to plants </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  40. 40. <ul><li>37.19 The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus and other soil minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are recycled locally </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.19 Weathering of rocks Geologic uplift of rocks Runoff Sedimentation Leaching Soil Plant uptake of PO 4 3 – Consumption Decomposition Rain Plants
  41. 41. <ul><li>37.20 Ecosystem alteration can upset chemical cycling </li></ul>ECOSYSTEM ALTERATION CONNECTION 0
  42. 42. <ul><ul><li>Ecosystem studies show that drastic alterations, such as the total removal of vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can increase the runoff and loss of soil nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.20A—C Nitrate concentration in runoff (mg/L) Completion of tree cutting Control Deforested 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 1965 1966 1967 1968
  43. 43. <ul><ul><li>Environmental changes caused by humans, such as acid precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can unbalance nutrient cycling over the long term </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  44. 44. <ul><li>37.21 David Schindler talks about the effects of nutrients on freshwater ecosystems </li></ul>TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE 0 Figure 37.21A
  45. 45. <ul><ul><li>Nutrient runoff from agricultural lands and large livestock operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May cause excessive algal growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This cultural eutrophication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces species diversity and harms water quality </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 37.21B

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