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Chapter 15 Tracing Evolutionary History 0
<ul><li>Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did birds evolve from dinosaurs? </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Recent fossil finds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support this notion </li></ul></ul></ul>
MACROEVOLUTION AND EARTH’S HISTORY <ul><li>15.1 The fossil record chronicles macroevolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The foss...
<ul><ul><li>In the geologic record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major transitions in life-forms separate eras </li></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>The geologic record </li></ul></ul>Table 15.1
<ul><li>15.2 The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiometric dating  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>15.3 Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental drift </li></ul...
<ul><ul><li>The formation of Pangaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altered habitats and triggered extinctions </li></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>The separation of the continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected the distribution and diversification ...
CONNECTION <ul><li>15.4 Tectonic trauma imperils local life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes and earthquakes result from pl...
<ul><li>15.5 Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass extinctions </li><...
<ul><ul><li>The Cretaceous extinction, which included the dinosaurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have been caused by...
<ul><ul><li>A rebound in diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follows mass extinctions </li></ul></ul></ul>
PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS  <ul><li>15.6 Phylogenies are based on homologies in fossils and living organisms </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Analogous similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result from convergent evolution in similar environments...
<ul><ul><li>Systematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the analytical study of diversity and phylogeny </li></ul>...
<ul><li>15.7 Systematics connects classification with evolutionary history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomists assign a bino...
<ul><ul><li>Genera are grouped into progressively larger categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family, order, class, p...
<ul><ul><li>A phylogenetic tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>15.8 Cladograms are diagrams based on shared characters among species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cladistics uses shared...
<ul><ul><li>Shared primitive characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are common to ancestral groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>The simplest (most parsimonious) hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the most likely phylogeneti...
<ul><li>15.9 Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular systematics </li></ul></u...
<ul><ul><li>Studies of ribosomal RNA sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have shown that humans are more closely rela...
<ul><li>DNA Comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular comparisons of nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often ...
<ul><li>Molecular Clocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some regions of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change at a rate consist...
<ul><li>Genome Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are found in many species <...
<ul><li>15.10 Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the five-kingdom system </li></u...
<ul><ul><li>The domain system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes the prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea </li>...
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Chapter 15 Tracing Evolutionary History

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Chapter 15 Tracing Evolutionary History

  1. 1. Chapter 15 Tracing Evolutionary History 0
  2. 2. <ul><li>Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did birds evolve from dinosaurs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary biologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have been pondering this question for decades </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Recent fossil finds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support this notion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. MACROEVOLUTION AND EARTH’S HISTORY <ul><li>15.1 The fossil record chronicles macroevolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fossil record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documents the main events in the history of life </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>In the geologic record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major transitions in life-forms separate eras </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller changes divide eras into periods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>The geologic record </li></ul></ul>Table 15.1
  7. 7. <ul><li>15.2 The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiometric dating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the decay of radioactive isotopes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can gauge the actual ages of fossils and the rocks in which they are found </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>15.3 Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the slow, incessant movement of Earth’s crustal plates on the hot mantle </li></ul></ul></ul>Edge of one plate being pushed over edge of neighboring plate (zones of violent geologic events) Antarctic Plate Australian Plate Split developing Indian Plate Eurasian Plate North American Plate South American Plate Nazca Plate Pacific Plate Arabian Plate African Plate Figure 15.3A
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>The formation of Pangaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altered habitats and triggered extinctions </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 15.3B 0 65 135 245 Millions of years ago Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic North America Eurasia Africa South America India Antarctica Australia Laurasia Gondwana Pangaea
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>The separation of the continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected the distribution and diversification of organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 15.3D Figure 15.3C North America South America Europe Asia Africa Australia = Living lungfishes = Fossilized lungfishes
  11. 11. CONNECTION <ul><li>15.4 Tectonic trauma imperils local life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes and earthquakes result from plate tectonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The movements of Earth’s crustal plates </li></ul></ul></ul>San Andreas Fault North American Plate San Francisco Santa Cruz Los Angeles Pacific Plate California Figure 15.4A, B
  12. 12. <ul><li>15.5 Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurred at the end of the Permian and Cretaceous periods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>The Cretaceous extinction, which included the dinosaurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have been caused by an asteroid </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 15.5 North America Chicxulub crater Yucatán Peninsula Yucatán Peninsula
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>A rebound in diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follows mass extinctions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS <ul><li>15.6 Phylogenies are based on homologies in fossils and living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogeny, the evolutionary history of a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is based on identifying homologous and molecular sequences that provide evidence of common ancestry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Analogous similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result from convergent evolution in similar environments </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 15.6
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Systematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the analytical study of diversity and phylogeny </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>15.7 Systematics connects classification with evolutionary history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomists assign a binomial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consisting of a genus and species name, to each species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A genus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May include a group of related species </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Genera are grouped into progressively larger categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 15.7A Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Felis catus Felis Felidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>A phylogenetic tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>Species Felis catus (domestic cat) Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis familiaris (domestic dog) Canis lupus (wolf) Genus Family Order Felis Felidae Carnivora Mustelidae Mephitis Lutra Canis Canidae Figure 15.7B
  21. 21. <ul><li>15.8 Cladograms are diagrams based on shared characters among species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cladistics uses shared derived characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To define monophyletic taxa </li></ul></ul></ul>Taxa Ingroup (Mammals) Outgroup (Reptiles) Eastern box turtle Duck-billed platypus Red kangaroo North American beaver Characters Long gestation Gestation Hair, mammary glands Long gestation Gestation Hair, mammary glands Vertebral column Vertebral column Figure 15.8A 3 2 1 3 1 2
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Shared primitive characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are common to ancestral groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>The simplest (most parsimonious) hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates the most likely phylogenetic tree </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 15.8B Lizards Snakes Crocodiles Birds Common reptilian ancestor
  24. 24. <ul><li>15.9 Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular systematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develops phylogenetic hypotheses based on molecular comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul>Brown bear Polar bear Asiatic black bear American black bear Sun bear Sloth bear Spectacled bear Giant panda Raccoon Lesser panda Pleistocene Pliocene 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Oligocene Miocene Millions of years ago Ursidae Procyonidae Common ancestral carnivorans Figure 15.9A
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Studies of ribosomal RNA sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have shown that humans are more closely related to fungi than to green plants </li></ul></ul></ul>Student Mushroom Tulip Common ancestor Figure 15.9B
  26. 26. <ul><li>DNA Comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular comparisons of nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often pose technical challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can reveal the most fundamental similarities or differences between species </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Molecular Clocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some regions of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change at a rate consistent enough to serve as molecular clocks to date evolutionary events </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Genome Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are found in many species </li></ul></ul></ul>Human Chimpanzee Gorilla Orangutan Common ancestor Figure 15.9C
  29. 29. <ul><li>15.10 Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the five-kingdom system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes are in the kingdom Monera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes (plants, animals, protists, and fungi) are grouped in separate kingdoms </li></ul></ul></ul>Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10A
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>The domain system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes the prokaryotic domains Bacteria and Archaea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are placed in the domain Eukarya </li></ul></ul></ul>Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Earliest organisms Prokaryotes Eukoryotes Figure 15.10B

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