Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve 0
<ul><li>Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The blue-footed booby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is...
<ul><ul><li>This type of bird possesses many specialized characteristics, called evolutionary adaptations </li></ul></ul><...
DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION <ul><li>13.1 A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O...
<ul><ul><li>Darwin’s main ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be traced back to the ancient Greeks </li></ul></ul></u...
<ul><ul><li>In the century prior to Darwin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The study of fossils suggested that life forms c...
<ul><ul><li>While on the voyage of the HMS  Beagle  in the 1830s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin observed si...
<ul><ul><li>Darwin’s experiences during the voyage of the  Beagle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped him frame his idea...
<ul><li>13.2 Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin observed that or...
<ul><ul><li>Darwin reasoned that natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results in favored traits being represen...
<ul><ul><li>Darwin found convincing evidence for his ideas in the results of artificial selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Darwin proposed that living species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are descended from earlier life forms and t...
<ul><li>13.3 The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils and the fossil reco...
<ul><ul><li>The fossil record  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals that organisms have evolved in a historical sequence...
<ul><ul><li>Many fossils link early extinct species  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With species living today </li></ul></...
<ul><li>13.4 A mass of other evidence reinforces the evolutionary view of life </li></ul>0
<ul><li>Biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biogeography, the geographic distribution of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Comparative anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the comparison of ...
<ul><ul><li>Homologous structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are features that often have different functions but are ...
<ul><li>Comparative Embryology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative embryology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the comparis...
<ul><ul><li>Many vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have common embryonic structures </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Post-an...
<ul><li>Molecular Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms </...
CONNECTION <ul><li>13.5 Scientists can observe natural selection in action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage adaptations th...
<ul><ul><li>Development of pesticide resistance in insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is another example of natural se...
<ul><li>13.6 Populations are the units of evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a...
<ul><ul><li>Population genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies how populations change genetically over time </li><...
<ul><ul><li>A gene pool  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the total collection of genes in a population at any one time <...
<ul><li>13.7 The gene pool of a nonevolving population remains constant over the generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a no...
<ul><ul><li>Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States that the shuffling of genes during sexual r...
<ul><ul><li>We can follow alleles in a population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To observe if Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ...
<ul><ul><li>For a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it must satisfy five main conditions </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>13.8 The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health scientists...
<ul><li>13.9 In addition to natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow can contribute to evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Genetic drift  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause the bottleneck effect or the founder effect </li></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Gene flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the movement of individuals or gametes between populations </li></...
<ul><ul><li>Natural selection  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to differential reproductive success in a population <...
<ul><li>13.10 Endangered species often have reduced variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low genetic variability  </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>13.11 Variation is extensive in most populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many populations exhibit polymorphism  </li...
<ul><ul><li>Populations may also exhibit geographic variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variation of an inherited cha...
<ul><li>13.12 Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations, or changes in the nucl...
<ul><ul><li>Sexual recombination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generates variation by shuffling alleles during meiosis </...
<ul><li>13.13 The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious public health concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>13.14 Diploidy and balancing selection variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploidy preserves variation  </li></ul></u...
<ul><ul><li>Some variations may be neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing no apparent advantage or disadvantage ...
<ul><li>13.15 The perpetuation of genes defines evolutionary fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s fitness </li></...
<ul><li>13.16 Natural selection can alter variation in a population in three ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizing select...
<ul><ul><li>Three possible effects of natural selection </li></ul></ul>0 Original population Stabilizing selection Origina...
<ul><li>13.17 Sexual selection may produce sexual dimorphism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual selection leads to the evolution...
<ul><li>13.18 Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are at least four reasons why...
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Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve

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Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve

  1. 1. Chapter 13 How Populations Evolve 0
  2. 2. <ul><li>Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The blue-footed booby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a type of bird living in the Galápagos Islands </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>This type of bird possesses many specialized characteristics, called evolutionary adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which are inherited traits that enhance its ability to survive and reproduce in its particular environment </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  4. 4. DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION <ul><li>13.1 A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On his visit to the Galápagos Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin observed many unique organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 13.1A
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Darwin’s main ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be traced back to the ancient Greeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle and the Judeo-Christian culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that species are fixed </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>In the century prior to Darwin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The study of fossils suggested that life forms change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geologists proposed that a very old Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is changed by gradual processes </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>While on the voyage of the HMS Beagle in the 1830s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin observed similarities between living and fossil organisms and the diversity of life on the Galápagos Islands </li></ul></ul></ul>0 North America Europe Great Britain Africa Equator Asia Australia Tasmania New Zealand PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN The Galápagos Islands South America Tierra del Fuego Cape Horn Cape of Good Hope Andes Pinta Marchena Genovesa Equator Santiago Isabela Fernandina Florenza Española San Cristobal Santa Cruz Santa Fe Pinzón Daphne Islands 40 miles 40 km 0 0 Figure 13.1B
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Darwin’s experiences during the voyage of the Beagle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped him frame his ideas on evolution </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  9. 9. <ul><li>13.2 Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin observed that organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce more offspring than the environment can support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in many characteristics that can be inherited </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Darwin reasoned that natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results in favored traits being represented more and more and unfavored ones less and less in ensuing generations of organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Darwin found convincing evidence for his ideas in the results of artificial selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 13.2A Hundreds to thousands of years of breeding (artificial selection) Ancestral dog (wolf) Figure 13.2B
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Darwin proposed that living species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are descended from earlier life forms and that natural selection is the mechanism of evolution </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Thousands to millions of years of natural selection Ancestral canine African wild dog Coyote Wolf Fox Jackal Figure 13.2C
  13. 13. <ul><li>13.3 The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils and the fossil record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strongly support the theory of evolution </li></ul></ul></ul>0 A Skull of Homo erectus D Dinosaur tracks C Ammonite casts B Petrified tree E Fossilized organic matter of a leaf G “Ice Man” Figure 13.3A–G F Insect in amber
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>The fossil record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals that organisms have evolved in a historical sequence </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 13.3H
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Many fossils link early extinct species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With species living today </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 13.3I
  16. 16. <ul><li>13.4 A mass of other evidence reinforces the evolutionary view of life </li></ul>0
  17. 17. <ul><li>Biogeography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biogeography, the geographic distribution of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested to Darwin that organisms evolve from common ancestors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin noted that Galápagos animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resembled species of the South American mainland more than animals on similar but distant islands </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  18. 18. <ul><li>Comparative anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the comparison of body structures in different species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the similarity in characteristics that result from common ancestry </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Homologous structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are features that often have different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Human Cat Whale Bat Figure 13.4A
  20. 20. <ul><li>Comparative Embryology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative embryology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the comparison of early stages of development among different organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Many vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have common embryonic structures </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Post-anal tail Pharyngeal pouches Chick embryo Human embryo Figure 13.4B
  22. 22. <ul><li>Molecular Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences between different organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal evolutionary relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Table 13.4
  23. 23. CONNECTION <ul><li>13.5 Scientists can observe natural selection in action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage adaptations that evolved in different environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are examples of the results of natural selection </li></ul></ul></ul>0 A flower mantid in Malaysia A leaf mantid in Costa Rica Figure 13.5A
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Development of pesticide resistance in insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is another example of natural selection in action </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Pesticide application Survivor Chromosome with gene conferring resistance to pesticide Additional applications of the same pesticide will be less effective, and the frequency of resistant insects in the population will grow Figure 13.5B
  25. 25. <ul><li>13.6 Populations are the units of evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A species is a group of populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whose individuals can interbreed and produce fertile offspring </li></ul></ul></ul>POPULATION GENETICS AND THE MODERN SYNTHESIS 0
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Population genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies how populations change genetically over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The modern synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connects Darwin’s theory with population genetics </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>A gene pool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the total collection of genes in a population at any one time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microevolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a gene pool </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  28. 28. <ul><li>13.7 The gene pool of a nonevolving population remains constant over the generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a nonevolving population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The shuffling of alleles that accompanies sexual reproduction does not alter the genetic makeup of the population </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Webbing No webbing Figure 13.7A
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States that the shuffling of genes during sexual reproduction does not alter the proportions of different alleles in a gene pool </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Phenotypes Genotypes WW Ww ww Number of animals (total  500) 320 160 20 320 500 Genotype frequencies  0.64 160 500  0.32 20 500  0.04 Number of alleles in gene pool (total  1,000) Allele frequencies 800 1,000  0.8 W  0.2 w 640 W 160 W  160 w 40 w Figure 13.7B 200 1,000
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>We can follow alleles in a population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To observe if Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium exists </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Recombination of alleles from parent generation EGGS Genotype frequencies Allele frequencies 0.64 WW 0.32 Ww 0.04 ww 0.8 W 0.2 w Next generation: W egg p  0.8 w egg q  0.2 W sperm p  0.8 w sperm q  0.2 SPERM WW p 2  0.64 Ww pq  0.16 wW qp  0.16 ww q 2  0.04 Figure 13.7C
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>For a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it must satisfy five main conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The population is very large </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The population is isolated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations do not alter the gene pool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mating is random </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All individuals are equal in reproductive success </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  32. 32. <ul><li>13.8 The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health scientists use the Hardy-Weinberg equation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To estimate frequencies of disease-causing alleles in the human population </li></ul></ul></ul>CONNECTION 0
  33. 33. <ul><li>13.9 In addition to natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow can contribute to evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a change in the gene pool of a population due to chance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can alter allele frequencies in a population </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>Genetic drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause the bottleneck effect or the founder effect </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Original population Bottlenecking event Surviving population Figure 13.9A Figure 13.9B
  35. 35. <ul><ul><li>Gene flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the movement of individuals or gametes between populations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can alter allele frequencies in a population </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to differential reproductive success in a population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can alter allele frequencies in a population </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  37. 37. <ul><li>13.10 Endangered species often have reduced variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low genetic variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May reduce the capacity of endangered species to survive as humans continue to alter the environment </li></ul></ul></ul>CONNECTION 0 Figure 13.10
  38. 38. <ul><li>13.11 Variation is extensive in most populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many populations exhibit polymorphism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different forms of phenotypic characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul>VARIATION AND NATURAL SELECTION 0 Figure 13.11
  39. 39. <ul><ul><li>Populations may also exhibit geographic variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variation of an inherited characteristic along a geographic continuum </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  40. 40. <ul><li>13.12 Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations, or changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can create new alleles </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  41. 41. <ul><ul><li>Sexual recombination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generates variation by shuffling alleles during meiosis </li></ul></ul></ul>0 A 1 A 2 A 1 A 3 A 1 A 1 A 2 A 3 A 2 A 1 A 3 and X Parents Meiosis Gametes Fertilization Offspring, with new combinations of alleles Figure 13.12
  42. 42. <ul><li>13.13 The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious public health concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The excessive use of antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is leading to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>CONNECTION 0 Colorized SEM 5,600  Figure 13.13
  43. 43. <ul><li>13.14 Diploidy and balancing selection variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploidy preserves variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By “hiding” recessive alleles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced polymorphism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May result from the heterozygote advantage or frequency-dependent selection </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Some variations may be neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing no apparent advantage or disadvantage </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 13.14
  45. 45. <ul><li>13.15 The perpetuation of genes defines evolutionary fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s fitness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the contribution it makes to the gene pool of the next generation </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  46. 46. <ul><li>13.16 Natural selection can alter variation in a population in three ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizing selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favors intermediate phenotypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruptive selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range </li></ul></ul></ul>0
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>Three possible effects of natural selection </li></ul></ul>0 Original population Stabilizing selection Original population Evolved population Frequency of individuals Phenotypes (fur color) Directional selection Disruptive selection Figure 13.16
  48. 48. <ul><li>13.17 Sexual selection may produce sexual dimorphism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual selection leads to the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which may give individuals an advantage in mating </li></ul></ul></ul>0 Figure 13.17A Figure 13.17B
  49. 49. <ul><li>13.18 Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are at least four reasons why natural selection cannot produce perfection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms are limited by historical constraints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations are often compromises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chance and natural selection interact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection can only edit existing variations </li></ul></ul></ul>0

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