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03 Lecture Ppt

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 3 Organic Molecules and Cells
  2. 2. The Diversity of Organic Molecules Makes Life Diverse 3-
  3. 3. 3.1 The chemistry of carbon makes diverse molecules possible <ul><li>Compounds made of hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms consist mainly of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the oxygen and hydrogen are in water </li></ul></ul></ul>3-
  4. 4. Carbon has unique bonding properties <ul><li>Carbon can share electrons with as many as four other atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, it can form several different shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side branches </li></ul></ul>3-
  5. 5. Figure 3.1 Each of these organisms uses a different type of structural carbohydrate 3-
  6. 6. 3-
  7. 7. 3.2 Functional groups add to the diversity of organic molecules <ul><li>A specific combination of bonded atoms that always react in the same way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: -OH, the hydroxyl group is hydrophilic and found in alcohol, sugar, and amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isomers – organic molecules with identical molecular formulas, but a different arrangement of atoms </li></ul>3-
  8. 8. Figure 3.2A Functional groups of organic molecules 3-
  9. 9. 3.3 Molecular subunits can be linked to form macromolecules <ul><li>Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are called macromolecules because of their large size </li></ul><ul><li>The largest macromolecules are polymers because they are constructed of many subunits called monomers </li></ul>3-
  10. 10. Dehydration and Hydrolysis <ul><li>Dehydration reaction synthesizes polymers from monomers by removing water </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis reaction splits polymers into monomers by adding water </li></ul>3-
  11. 11. Figure 3.3B Synthesis and degradation of polymers 3-
  12. 12. Carbohydrates Are Energy Sources and Structural Components 3-
  13. 13. 3.4 Simple carbohydrates provide quick energy <ul><li>Used as an immediate energy source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon to hydrogen to oxygen ratio = 1:2:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides contain a single sugar molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose and deoxyribose are found in DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaccharides contain two monosaccharides joined via dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul>3-
  14. 14. Figure 3.4A Three ways to represent glucose, a source of quick energy for this cheetah and all organisms 3-
  15. 15. Figure 3.4B Formation and breakdown of maltose, a disaccharide 3-
  16. 16. 3.5 Complex carbohydrates store energy and provide structural support <ul><li>Polymers of monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Used for short-term or long-term energy storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals store glucose as glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants store glucose as starch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some are used for structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chitin is used in animals and fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose is used by plants </li></ul></ul>3-
  17. 17. Figure 3.5 Some of the polysaccharides in plants and animals 3-
  18. 18. Lipids Provide Storage, Insulation, and Other Functions 3-
  19. 19. 3.6 Fats and oils are rich energy-storage molecules <ul><li>Hydrophobic biomolecules made of hydrocarbon chains </li></ul><ul><li>Fats and oils contain glycerol and fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes called triglycerides </li></ul></ul>3-
  20. 20. Figure 3.6 Formation and breakdown of a fat 3-
  21. 21. Saturated and Unsaturated Fats <ul><li>Saturated fats have no double bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are saturated with hydrogens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats have double bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not saturated with hydrogens </li></ul></ul>3-
  22. 22. 3.7 Other lipids have structural, hormonal, or protective functions <ul><li>Phospholipids have hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in plasma membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steroids are hydrophobic molecules that pass through plasma membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes are hydrophobic molecules used for waterproofing </li></ul>3-
  23. 23. Figure 3.7 Phospholipid, cholesterol (a steroid), and wax 3-
  24. 24. Proteins Have a Wide Variety of Vital Functions 3-
  25. 25. 3.8 Proteins are the most versatile of life’s molecules <ul><li>Important for structure and function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of dry weight of most cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul></ul>3-
  26. 26. 3.9 Each protein is a sequence of particular amino acids <ul><li>Proteins are macromolecules with amino acid subunits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of peptide bonds via dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide chain is many amino acids bonded together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A protein may have many polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul>3-
  27. 27. Figure 3.9A Formation and breakdown of a peptide 3-
  28. 28. Amino Acids <ul><li>Variety is due to the R group </li></ul>3-
  29. 29. Figure 3.9B Amino acid diversity. The amino acids are shown in ionized form 3-
  30. 30. 3.10 The shape of a protein is necessary to its function <ul><li>Denaturation - the irreversible change of protein shape caused by heat or pH </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Organization </li></ul>3-
  31. 31. Figure 3.10 Levels of protein organization 3-
  32. 32. Nucleic Acids Are Information Molecules 3-
  33. 33. 3.11 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA carry coded information <ul><li>DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The genetic material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RNA – ribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A copy of DNA used to make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are polymers of nucleotide s monomers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides are made of a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate </li></ul></ul>3-
  34. 34. 3-
  35. 35. <ul><li>Figure 3.11A One nucleotide Figure 3.11B RNA structure </li></ul>3-
  36. 36. Figure 3.11C DNA structure at three levels of complexity 3-
  37. 37. APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES 3.12 The Human Genome Project may lead to new disease treatments <ul><li>Sequenced the genome of humans </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists create genetic profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to predict diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Type 2 Diabetes, Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to make specific treatments </li></ul></ul>3-
  38. 38. 3.13 The nucleotide ATP is the cell’s energy carrier <ul><li>Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nucleotide with the base adenine and the sugar ribose making a compound adenosine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrolyzes phosphates to release energy and form adenosine diphosphate (ADP) </li></ul>3-
  39. 39. <ul><li>Figure 3.13A ATP hydrolysis </li></ul>3- Figure 3.13B releases energy Animals convert food energy to that of ATP
  40. 40. Connecting the Concepts: Chapter 3 <ul><li>Carbon forms the backbone of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><li>The macromolecules of cells are polymers of small organic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sugars are the monomers of complex carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids are the monomers of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul></ul>3-