Climate Change and urban population health Ayşe Betül Kılıç
– the SubjeCt headingS:1. Introduction2. Climate Change3. Climate Change Risks on Health4. Diseases which comes with Climate Change5. Uncertainity of Climate Change6. Some strategies to reduce the effects of Climate Change on Health
Climate Change and urban population health Climate change may affect; a range of• Geophysical• Ecological• Socio-economic systems Which influence human health.
Climate Change and urban population health• The effects, short and direct chain of causation;• Increased mortality from heatwaves and other reasons• Changes in ecosystem
Climate Change and urban population health• Climate change may also occur in the context of other large-scale societal and enviromental changes;• Land use• Biodiversity• Urbanisation• Economic growth or decline• These may also affect;• Patterns of health and disease
Climate Change and urban population health• Climate change brings specific risks for the health and livelihood of settled urban population;• Accessing to clean water• Disrupted land during a flood• Leading to the rapid spread of disease• Often the loss of lives and homes
• With climate change increased heatwaves affect urban population health. Health effects of heatwaves;• Hyperthermia• Heat stroke• Heat cramps• Heat exhaustion• Heat rash• Mortality
Climate Change and urban population health• National Health Service reports that more and more people suffering from familiar disorders ;• Heat stroke• Skin cancer•Unfamiliar disorders;• Malaria• Lyme disease
Climate Change and urban population health• If no action is taken problems such as;• Malnutration• Deaths• Injury due to extreme weather conditions• Change in geographical distribution of disease vectors
Climate Change and urban population health• Cities are vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change because of;• their concentration of people and infrastructure• the physical,geographical, material, and structural attributes of the built environment• the ecological interdependence with the urban ecosystem
Climate Change and urban population health• Climate change is expected to increase morbidity and mortality from• thermal stress• bacterial gastroenteritis• vector-borne disease• air pollution• flooding• bushfires• The cost and availability of fresh water, food, and energy will also likely be affected.
Climate Change and urban population health• The World Health Organisation reports many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations• from cardiovascular mortality (about heart and vessel)• respiratory illnesses (about breathing)• due to• heatwaves• altered transmission of infectious diseases• and malnutrition from crop failures.
Climate Change and urban population health• Uncertainty of climate change;• the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change• the large influence of socio-economic factors• changes in immunity and drug resistance.
Climate Change and urban population health• Another health issue; Food Poisoning• between 4000 and 14 000 extra cases of food poisoning might occur each year in the UK• Other best estimate is about 10 000 extra cases each year
Climate Change and urban population health• High temperatures have significant adverse effects mortality and morbidity.• 800 heat-related deaths occur in the UK per year• It mostly affects vulnerable individuals such as elderly or sick people• The costs of treatment and the loss of working time also make it an important economic problem in UK.
Climate Change and urban population health• As much as heat cold which comes with climate change may cause death.• The increases would be more than matched by a fall in cold-related deaths (to 60 000 compared to 80 000 under the current climate) and hospitalisation due to progressively milder winters, as the climate changes.
Climate Change and urban population health• Public health benefits of strategies’ headlines to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions could be:• Urban land transport• Household energy• Low-carbon electricity generation• Food and Agriculture• Health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants• Implications for policy makers
Climate Change and urban population healthUrban Land Transport:• Lower carbon-emission motor vehicles• To increase active travel• To decrease air pollution• To reduce risk of road traffic injury• To discourage travel in private motor vehicles
Climate Change and urban population health• Household energy:• 150 million low-emission household cookstoves in India• Acute lower respiratory infection in children• Chronic obstructive lung disease,• Ischaemic heart disease• Household energy interventions have potential for important co-benefits in pursuit of health and climate goals.
Climate Change and urban population health• Low-carbon electricity generation :• Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation ,where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low• decarbonising electricity production• To provide additional information about the extent of such gains
Climate Change and urban population health• Food and Agriculture:• agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector• provide large amounts of saturated fat,• which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease• to meet the target which to reduce emissions from the concentrations• reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease
Climate Change and urban population health• Health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants:• Health effects of three short-lived greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates• black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species• The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies
Climate Change and urban population health• Overview and implications for policy makers:• Mitigation strategies need to address underlying burden of disease and inequity as well as implement broad structural changes to building codes and urban design, and infrastructure capacity. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive.
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