PIRKKOExperts and experiencednon-experts(Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993)
Developmental perspective and performance is conjugated with need of constant learning, which is in line with expertise studies (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993). As a challenge, social and collaborative side of expertise set new demands for individuals and groups. As already known collaboration is effective way of learning, but does not happen easily (Dillenbourg, Järvelä, & Fisher, 2009). We know also that in educational domain, teachers lack skills of successful collaboration and meaningful use of technologies in their collaboration (Impiö, 2009).
Strong faith that everything goes well
“People are dissimilar, which should be acknowledged”. Another group of problems deals with inadequate technical tools. Although many ICT tools are in use, there are still lack of tools and software that solve very compound problems. This is evident especially in very complex organizations with multiple processes and people in local and international contexts. The dilemma is that actual needs are exceptionally complicated, there is not yet any system invented to solve them. All in all knowledge management is a challengeDecision-making problems (Johnson, 1988; Jonassen, 2007) where stated in many cases. Experts at times have to make decisions without the necessary information. In such cases, they may take risks that could cost millions of Euros or theten people’s health. The question is how to enhance Edutool students’ decision-making skills, i.e. decision-making expertise already during their education? According to Yates and Tschirhart (2007) quality of decisions along with satisfying results of the actions in domain area should be acknowledged. The team is formed of people with relevant expertise in house construction, for instance architecture, legislation, economics and technologies. Each member in the team is highly educated and must have at least 20 years experience and evaluated as key persons before acceptance. The expert team works intensively trying to construct new knowledge and innovations, and also share tacit knowledge that is difficult to articulate and transfer. In order to succeed, participants should be able to conscious deliberation and reflection in their interaction. Such engagement involves making explicit the tacit knowledge that they have gained from experience (Tsui, 2009).
Her utterance reveals the fact that as ‘adaptive’ experts, individuals become better at perceiving the whole entity and hidden factors (see, Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993). ‘Routine’ experts know how to care for a coughing patient and prescribe medicines, and send the patient away without thinking about the whole person, and without considering more important factors behind the symptoms. In the beginning of the problem-solving episodes experts try to understand the problem, to problematize unproblematic (Glaser & Chi, 1988; Tsui, 2009). Laila’s case is important to notice here, because it tells about the cycle that integrates development of expertise and affordances of environment: individual’s expertise increases her ability to perceive augments (e.g., Crawford, 2007); her ability to make decisions augments environment can provide complexity in relation to her abilities and edge of competence. Medical domain is a complex multifaceted and knowledge-rich (Norman, Eva, Brooms, & Hamstra, 2007; Patel, Glaser, & Aroha, 2000), where problems are different than in many other domains. Theory-based reasoning and simultaneous reflecting on visible and non-visible, and measurable and non-measurable symptoms with various possible schemas (Barnes & Koslowsky, 2002; Patel et al., 2000) are intertwined in a situation.Hatano and Inagaki (1986) validate that perception by stating that playfulness is highly relevant factor to education, which influences whether individuals will engage in active experimentation (see also Lin, Schwartz & Bransford, 2007).
Expert / Edutool 2012
EXPERT – theoretical and empirical background Pirkko Hyvönen, firstname.lastname@example.org Post-doc researher KTK/ LET, Oulun yliopisto
AFTER THIS LECTUREExplain, why is expertise and expertperformance important to learn inhigher education.Describe different types of expertiseand particularly differences betweenroutine and adaptive expert.Reflect, what kind of expertise isneeded in work life today.Understand, that learning expertisecan be designed. Pirkko Hyvönen, email@example.com Tutkijatohtori KTK/ LET, Oulun yliopisto
BACKGROUND Universities are expected to educate experts, who are competent to excel in changing and complex circumstances in work life, but education does not provide competencies for it. (Hyvönen, Impiö, Järvelä, 2010). LET master’s program aims to educate experts in learning and educational technology. The students will be competent to work in schools and work places and use their expertise in adapting to changing situations, solving problems, creating social innovations and integrating technologies in practices. Education is based on LET research and it provides a strong support for learning. Education is also one of the research contexts.
STEREOTYPES related to EXPERTISEGenderAge Talent Expertise is more than generalEducation Skills intelligence: ”Capasity to perform consistentlyObjective Specialist at a superior level” (Weisberg, 2006)truth Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993
DEFINITIONS IN DICTIONARIESFROM 1968-20111968: One who is very skillful and well-informed in some special field (Webster)2005: Characteristics , skills andknowledge that distinguishes expertsfrom novices and less experienced people(Wikipedia)2011: person, who in certain domain canrecognise problems and solve themefficiently. Expertise includesknowledge, experiences and skills forexpressing. (Wikipedia)
DOMAIN-SPECIFIC EXPERTISE - Informal and formal domainsSalomon (1997). Wine expertiseNorman et al. (2006). Medicine andsurgeryDurco & Dattel (2006). TransportationSonentag et al. (2006). Software designKellogg (2006). Professional writingRoss et al. (2006). Decision makingLehman & Gruber (2006). MusicHodges et al. (2006). SportsButterworth (2006). MathematicsCobet & Charness (2006). ChessVoss & Wiley (2006). HistoryBrennenkmeyer & Spillane (2008).Problem-solving
TYPES OF EXPERTISEBransford, 2001; Bransford et al., 2000; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986Which kind of expertise is valued and aimed; and how to design learningprocesses, evaluations, learning outcomes and instructions.EXPERTS and experienced non-experts (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993) Career may conform merely to the routines, not advancing expertise and problem-solvingEXPERTS and novicesROUTINE EXPERTS Everyday skills, routines, are developed in familiar environments and in familiar tasks. Routine experts can develop their accuracy and fluency.ADAPTIVE EXPERTS Set of cognitive, meta-cognitive, social, and emotional strategies, where individuals abandon ‘routine’ problem-solving strategies Adaptive experts are more flexible, inventive, spontaneous, encouraging and creative. They deal with novel, unexpected situations and problems, and build knowledge at the same time. They increase their core competencies plus and go beyond their comfort zone!
Acting and ROUTINE EXPERTS ADAPTIVE EXPERTSdealing with Holoyok: truly expert,problems Bransford: competencies plusCOMPETENT TO SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT ARE COMPETENT TO SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT ARE NOVELFAMILIAR AND EXPECTED AND UNEXPECTEDSurface level perceptions, Make perceptions of problem and its context;Do not see hidden messages, does not see dissect various different perspectivesproblems See a problem as an opportunity to learn,Weak skills to solve new problems, but can learn in problem-solving and produce newsolve familiar problems knowledgeSee one suitable way to solve problems Classify, label, analyse problemsWant to solve the problem quickly, and move Perceive patterns and differenciesto next tasks Start to organise problem around centralSparce knowledge base -> may think quicly concepts or ideaMainly procedural knowledge Ponder forward, theoretical reasoningWhen situation unexpectably changes, Dence knowledge base thinking may takeefficiency decreases, because they triy to solve timeproblem by imitating familiar solutions that are Think and identify novel solutions andnot suitable for the situation possibilitiesDo not learn in problem-solving Strong conceptual understanding Flexible in using knowledge Evidence-based argumentation
EXPERTS EXCELL AND FALL SHORT (Chi, 2006) DOMAIN-LIMITEDGENERATING THE BEST - Have not necessarily knowledge about- Find the best solution other domainsDETECTION and RECOGNITION OVERTLY CONFIDENT- Detect and perceive features that - eg. in music and physicsnovices cannot GLOSSING OVERQUALITATIVE ANALYSIS - Sometimes they overlook details-Analyse problems, develope problem CONTEXT-DEPENDENT WITHIN Arepresentations DOMAINMONITORING - Sometimes rely too much for- Have good self-monitoring and contextual cuespredicting skills INFLEXIBLESTRATEGIES INACCURATE PREDICTION, JUDGMENT- Use the best and effective strategies in AND ADVICEa given situation - Cannot always take the perspectives ofOPPORTUNISTIC novices- Can use whatever sources of BIAS AND FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESSinformation that are available - Analyse problems in other domainCOGNITIVE EFFORT through the priciples of their ownCan retrieve relevant domain knowledge domain
EXPERTISE IN WORK LIFEInformants (N=13) are experts in different formal domainsOn what ground they are considered experts? They are in a leading and demanding position Key persons in their field Considered as more competent than other people in the field Long career and high education They consider themselves as experts Each of them are experts at least on two domains ”Expertise is easiest to identify when it differs most dramatically from what ordinary people can do” (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993)(Hyvönen, Impiö & Järvelä, 2010) let.oulu.fi / firstname.lastname@example.org
EXPERTISE IN WORK LIFE How experts define expertise?1) Expertise is future-oriented havinga developmental and advancingperspective. They are expected toinnovate new or re-new existingpractice, processes and products.2) Developmental perspective andperformance is conjugated with needof constant learning andunderstanding things and processes(Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993).- Factual, procedural and self- regulative knowledge- Multifaceted domains let.oulu.fi / email@example.com 12
3) Expertise is increasingly a social and collaborativephenomenon, which lay both opportunities and challenges for the pathof expertise.- Opportunity: social view, collaboration and even technologies in collaboration can enhance construction of shared expertise- Challenge: collaboration is effective way of learning, but does not happen easily - Social skills, communication, use of technologies - Learning from and with other people - Understanding other people: without it domain-specific expertise cannot be exploited let.oulu.fi / firstname.lastname@example.org 13
4) Experts Have a strong self-confidence, and trust on their team to develop, create and construct new solutions Knows how to act rationally in certain situations Have sensibility to perceive situations Are diligent, curious, flexible, self-initiative, and modest Expert’s work is not automatic nor easy. (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993; Hyvönen, Impiö & Järvelä, 2010; Tsui, 2009) let.oulu.fi / email@example.com 14
EXPERTISE IN WORK LIFE What are the problems like?Situations are always complex and difficult, and you can never be fullyprepared for them. Problems in working life involves more than runningthrough ‘routines’.1) Understand people and interacting with them. Problems with people arerelated to communication, social interaction, shared understanding andemotional constrains, such as envy and hostile atmospheres, which tend toprevent developing innovations and also expertise.2) Inadequate technical tools. Although many ICT tools are in use, there are stilllack of tools and software that solve very compound problems.3) Decision-making problems (Johnson, 1988; Jonassen, 2007): experts at times haveto make decisions without the necessary information.4) Sharing tacit knowledge5) Dealing with time, motivation, prioritization and overlapping tasks(Hyvönen, Impiö & Järvelä, 2010) let.oulu.fi / firstname.lastname@example.org 15
EXPERTISE IN WORK LIFE How do the experts perform ‘routine’ and ‘adaptive’ expertise in theirwork?“There is no such thing as routines in my work.”1) Degree of routines declines, when complexity of work and experience ofindividual increases: “The more I have experience in this work, the less thereare routine cases.”Cycle: ability to make perceptions and decisions augments environment canprovide complexity in relation to her abilities and edge of competence2) Creativity, insight and playfulness (see, Brophy et al., 2004; Hyvönen, 2008;Weisberg, 2006) seems to play a role in adaptive expertise.3) To some extend adaptive experts can adjust the complexity let.oulu.fi / email@example.com 16
EXPERTISE IN WORK LIFE How useful education has been fortheir current position?1) Overall, formal education has notsatisfactorily provided resources for theircurrent work; instead, it has providedbasic general knowledge. Education islacking of important areas that areneeded in work life, such ascommunication, negotiation andpresentation, even writing and discussingskills were not adequately provided.2) Only exception was education inengineering, that has provided skills inproblem-solving and foreignlanguages, which are essential in expertwork. let.oulu.fi / firstname.lastname@example.org 17
HOW TO LEARN TO BE AN ADAPTIVE EXPERT? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986Help students to understand their own processes of knowing and problem-solving!
Normal learning does not provide expertise, but can leadto ”good enough” tai ”satisfying” level. Normal learning can reach satisfying basic level. Then itis possible to free mental resources in order to use themfor higher level activities (in knowledge construction, skillsand self-regulation)Formal education produces the users of experts, but notexperts! (Geisler, 1994)Formal education does not nesessarily produceexperts, rather experienced non-experts (Bereiter &Scardamalia, 1993)
Learning expertise is a path or journey of competence building, including also regressions (Alexander, 2003; Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1986; Lajoie, 2003) Learning expertise comprices of three overlapping dimensions: knowledge construction (Bransford et al, 2000; Sawyer, 2006) expert-like performance (eg., Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993; Tynjälä, 2007) self-regulation (Boekaerts, Pintrich & Zeidner, 2000; Lin, Schwarz & Hatano, 2005) It is a transitional learning process where goals are set, monitored, reflected and scaffolded (Lajoie, 2003)
How to learn to be an adaptive expert? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986Structured collaborative problem-solving method (Hyvönen & Impiö)1. To establish the basis for collaborative problem solving process: to get to know each others, to acknowledge mental resourses and to construct common understanding of the task and underlying theories (activating prior knowledge) To design virtual and face-to-face phases and technological tools to be used.2. To understand the context of the problem, and the problem and to define learning goals Problems are authentic cases from work life; they are new and ill- structured, where multiple solutions are possible The core of a problem should be analysed and defined Reseach-based approach3. To find possible solutions by constructing new knowledge based on the learning sciences, but adapted to authentic work life.4. To choose the solution and work (play) with it until the problem will be solved
How to learn to be an adaptive expert? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986FEATURES OF THE COLLABORATIVE PROBLEM- SOLVING METHOD1. Problems are not as in work life, but real assignment from work life..2. Collaboration is enhanced all way long.3. Working takes place as expert teams by students, work life persons and other invited experts.4. Evaluation, monitoring, reflection and planning are central in the process.5. Playfulness and creativity are encouraged to free cognitive resources6. Autonomy in designing blended model to work and use technologies meaningfully (AC, Skype, GoogleDocs, mind maps etc.) For rich interaction For making thinking visible and audible For knowledge construction7. Academic, research-based approach and understanding8. The outcomes as social innovations, such as novel models to carry on
How to learn to be an adaptive expert? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986Examples of open problems by Elektrobit (EB) 20101. Open Source & Developer CommunitiesVarious developer communities are now important insoftware designing. Many software adaptations are basedon open source platform (eg.Linux, Symbian, Qt, Android, MeeGo), while variousinformal communities work as developers. One temporalquestion is how open source culture and joining indeveloper communities can be promoted?2. Motivation and managersManagers face questions and situations that are linked to Heiss, Janice J. (2007)motivation and flow of work. In order to help managers tocoach team members they need to understand, whatmotivation means and what affect to motivation. How toincrease understanding among coaching managers? Howmanager could help experts to maintain their motivationthrough work career?
How to learn to be an adaptive expert? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986Examples of results for problems by Elektrobit (EB) 2010Posters and booklets
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