Expert islands


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Expert islands

  1. 1. Islands ofExpertisePirkko Hyvönen, PhDLearning and EducationalTechnology Research Unit (LET)14.5.2013 1©
  2. 2. ISLANDS OF EXPERTISE(Crowley & Jacobs, 2002; Palmquist & Crowley, 2007)• Children and adult novices can develope knowledgeconstructions and deep understanding of phenomena,which they are deeply interested in (Chi & Koeske,1983).– Child & parent/adult; novice & expert• Domain approach to cognition applied to socialinteractions. It recognizes and requires thatenvironmental inputs are matched to child/novicescapacities and expectations. (Gelman, 2010)
  3. 3. ”BUILDING” AN ISLAND (knowledge construction) Building is seen as social and cognitive process, where learninghabits are practiced and developed. Island is woven throughtout multiple activities, henceit is essential to be occupied in many ways (negotiating, activities, reading,teaching, problem-solving, memorising etc.) with the phenomen, learn inactivity, particularly in conversations. Abstract and general themes Building may continue for weeks, months or years Generally building takes place in informal settings, like in home,museums etc.© Pirkko Hyvönen
  4. 4. YOU ARE NOT ALONE IN THE ISLAND! (learning issocial) Construct knowledge and deepen your understanding with otherpeople by negotiations, explanations and problem-solving situationsin everyday practices. Explanatoids Long series of collaborative interactions with peers and experts thatseems to be relatively unmarcable when viewed individually, butthey collectively create a strong linkage between understanding andinterest. Other people support you in maintaining the interest.© Pirkko Hyvönen
  5. 5. ISLANDS WILL FORM AN ARCHIPELAGO!(Conceptual construction) Through various activities individuals can develop largerepistemic frames, which will support the connections betweenearlier knowledge and new domains (Shaffer, 2006)– Epistemic frames can be seen as a transfer (more Schaffer,2006)
  6. 6. 6COOKINGCOUNTRIES, CONTINENTSVEHICLESTRAINSAN EXAMPLE OF ISLANDS3-year child:vocabulary,declarativeknowledge,schemas, memoriesare numerous, well-organised, andflexible.Their sharedknowledge,conversationalspace, allow theirtalk to move ondeeper levels thanis typicallypossible if the boywere a novice.Unerstanding canbe transfered toother situationsand domains.14.5.2013
  7. 7. ReligionHealt sciencesFinnishlanguageEnglishBiologieStatisticsHealthsciencesChemistryEducationalsciences,LearningCommon groundEnglishEconomicsPhilosophieMediasciencesCulturalanthropologyCommunicationPhysiotherapyARCHIPELAGO OF A ONE GROUPpsykologia14.5.2013 7
  8. 8. 14.5.2013 8YOUR TASK IS TOSOLO:1) Name keywords for islands of expertise.2) Make deep reflections of the social and cognitive ways, you havelearned your expertise in a domain of learning and educationaltechnology.3) Make a presentation of your islands / archipelago.COLLABORATION (3x4):1) In your group, present your design. A presenter is a novice and thepeers are experts who concentrate on making conversation to providedeeper understanding.Both, the interested novice and the supportive expert reflect and interpretdeclarative knowledge and practices, making interferences to connect newknowledge to existing knowledge. Expert aims to support interest andchallenge and deepen novice’s understanding3) Make a syntheses of the results: archipelago of the peer group andpresent it to other groups.
  9. 9. REFERENCESChi, M.T.H. & Koeske, R. (1983). Network representation of a child’sdinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 19, 29–39.Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise ineveryday family activities. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K Knutson(Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp. 401–423).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Gelman, S.A. (2010). Modules, theories, or islands of expertise?Domain specifity in socialization. Child Development, 81(3), 715–719.Palmquist, S. D. & Crowley, K. (2007). Studying dinosaur learning onan island of expertise. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry(Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences (pp. 271–286).Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Epistemic frames for epistemic games.Computers & Education, 46, 223– 9