Eeva Liisa


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Eeva Liisa

  1. 1. NORTHERN CHILDHOOD – lenses to children’s lives in Northern areas Date: November 23th- 25th Place: Hotel Levitunturi, Kittilä
  2. 2. Eeva-Liisa Kronqvist Challenges in the analysis of video interaction - - Explorations on young children’s learning Eeva-Liisa Kronqvist University of Oulu
  3. 3. Learning – a social phenomen <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner (1979): developmental processes and context interact to shape both individual lives and reciprocally the context in which lives are lived </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky’s (1978): the importance of social interaction for development </li></ul><ul><li>Development cannot be separated from its social and cultural context; </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to understand psychological processes and behaviour, we need to understand the social interaction, and the tools and signs that mediate them </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Why collaboration is beneficial? </li></ul><ul><li>There is much research about how collaborative activity may facilitate certain kinds of cognitive operations, learning and social adjustment in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of collaborative learning and a social network: </li></ul><ul><li>academic gains across different curriculum domains and enhanced socialisation among peers </li></ul><ul><li>children with multiple disabilities have also benefited through acquiring enhanced communication and motor skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>certain forms of conflicts can advance learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interaction between peers offer the opportunity for the exchange of perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication and argumentation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer-peer interaction (vs adult-peer which include social authority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children’s collaborative activity has also helped them in some of their social problems, for example in difficulties to pay attention to learning tasks or aggressive behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The social dynamics of interaction is important for promoting learning </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis of collaborative activity in pre-schools and schools showed that those pairs who talked, planned and negotiated the most were the most successful in solving problems (Mercer 1996) </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to research peer collaboration and learning <ul><li>Lines of research on peer interactions and collaborations (Branco 2003): </li></ul><ul><li>Research on various social forms of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Developmentally oriented tradition </li></ul><ul><li>developmetal patterns – from simple social directed behavior to highly complex and sophisticated interaction patterns </li></ul><ul><li>experimentally oriented projects searching for indication the superioity of joint work over individual efforts in problems solving situations </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretative approach </li></ul><ul><li>children’s growing abilities concerning their active participation in process of co-construction of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>researches the origins of ”peer culture </li></ul>
  7. 7. New trends for researching psychological phenomena in interaction <ul><li>Branco (2003):There is a need for paradigm shift, that privileges the study of processess instead of outcomes, and the use of qualitative methodological approaches to analyze the phenomena </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Which strategies do children use in collaboration and in teaching/tutor inganother child in a new game? </li></ul><ul><li>- and how to analyze the strategies children use? </li></ul>
  9. 9. The paths doing the analysis <ul><li>Stage I: empirical analysis based on observations in naturalistic settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations on tutoring interactions between young children (Verba 1998): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expert’s actions: comprehension (instrumental help): </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) informing & giving directions 2) demostrating/modelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>novice participation: request for help: 1) direct 2) indirect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kronqvist 2004. What happens in a group of children? Collaboration of small children, its construction and development in spontaneous play situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>children’s initiatives in spontaneous play, conflicts and the nature of collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Example 1. Construction play </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s initiatives and conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis: coding system and computer based analysis of data </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Stage II: overall learning patterns based on heuristic analysis <ul><li>The framework of the analysis for the tutoring and learning process </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction sequence was divided in three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mid of the tutoring process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End of the tutoring process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The overall nature of the tutoring based on the analysis of social relationships and conversational analysis in peer dyads </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Table 1. The framework for the analysis Categorization Beginning stage: stating goals giving first directions giving more directions asking questions demonstrating supporting giving statements answering commenting off-task Mid of the tutoring process: facilitating encouraging giving feed-back correcting mistakes anchoring attention helping critizing /evaluating asking help asking corrections comments resisting maintaining self-talk off-task Description Discussions about what should be done, stating goals, Explaining,giving directions “we have to try..” Modelling,showing e.g. “put that right there” Giving support e.g. “and there you go, that’s how you play the game” Commenting the nature of the game .“’It’s so easy” Providing help by pointing, handling et. Encouraging .“It’s difficult but you can do it” Showing which piece went wrong Helping concretely to put the piece Evaluating if it’s was wrong or not “yes, it was” Asking for concrete help:”Where is the blue square?” Commenting on the game or own task “I am really good at this other game” Maintain cooperation “Try to, you don’t need to do all” Activity not related to the task
  13. 14. End of the tutoring process: encouraging giving feed-back evaluating commenting helping asking questions resisting Description: Confirming the right result: eg.”you got two good jobs” Or evaluating: “It’s wrong, Jacob” Ok, the game is over
  14. 15. The overall tutoring patterns during the sessions <ul><li>Helping-encouraging pattern: child is helping, supporting and assisting another child </li></ul><ul><li>Together-doing pattern: joint activity characterized by collaborative working with the task </li></ul><ul><li>Resisting-maintaining pattern: child is resisting the task and tutor is trying to maintain the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor-centered, directed pattern: tutor is controlling and giving direct advise </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness pattern: difficulties to concentrate, restless, laughing, moving around </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Example 2. Max and Jacob </li></ul>
  16. 17. Stage III: structured and semi-strucutured learning situations and analysis based on microlevel interaction analysis <ul><li>ERA – The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment by Roseanne Clark </li></ul><ul><li>Video-based early intervention programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigi – Video Interaction Guidance by MLL, Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marte Meo – video-based method supoorting child-parent interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webster-Stratton – social skills and problem-solving trainging dor children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common traits: microlevelanalysis: parents variables, child variables and dyad variables </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Example 3. Episodes and interaction analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-school: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aleksi and Eeva, 6 yrs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Milla and Ville, 3 yrs old </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Emma, 5yrs and Mona, 2 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>learning from siblings </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><ul><li>Elementary school, 1.class, 7 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aino and Ulpu </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>Petri and Joona, 7 yrs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>Interaction analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child A (tutor) varibales: the quality of voice, mood, verbal utterances, emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child B (tutee) variables: activity level, communication, initiatives, mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction variables: emotionality, syncrony, intersubjectivity </li></ul></ul>
  23. 29. Discussion <ul><li>Do children learn from other children? </li></ul><ul><li>* all children could assist their partners through a variety of tutoring strategies </li></ul><ul><li>*experts provided a variety of forms of assistance, including especially facilitating and encouraging modes </li></ul><ul><li>*they also corrected mistakes and tried to maintain tutee’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements for the good peer-learning situations: </li></ul><ul><li>* children have to be active </li></ul><ul><li>* the meaning of adult is significant for foster learning </li></ul><ul><li>* the role child has in the tutoring process, affects to his/her activity in peer-learning situations: as tutor the child usually is more active than as tutee </li></ul><ul><li>What about the analysis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barron (2006): ”Video analysis can be extraordinarily productive as a way to deepen our understanding of learning and human interaction” </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>