1Introduction: describing and explaning L2 acquisition
What is ‘second language acquisition?Second refer to any languange that is learned subsequent to the mother tongue.Thus, it can refer to the learning of a thirtd or fourth language.Second is not intended to contrast with ‘foreign’.
L2 acquisition :Can be define as the way in which people learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside of a classroom, and ‘Second Language Acquisition’ SLA as the study of this
What are the goals of SLA? Find the description of L2 acquisiation Explanation Identifiying the external and internal factors that account for why learners acquired an L2 in the way they do.
External Factors The social milieu in which learning takes place. Social condition influence the opportunities that learners have to hear and speak the language and the attitude that they develop towards it. The input that the learners receive, the samples of language to which a learner is exposed.
Internal Factor :Leaner possess cognitive mechanisms which enable them to extract information about the L2 from the inpot—to nitice.Example:The plurality in English is conveyed by adding –s to a noun or that relative pronoun ‘who’ and ‘which’ subtitude respectively for human and non- human noun.
Finally,Learners possess communication the strategies that can help them make effective use of their L2 knowledge.
THE GOALS OF SLATo describe how L2 aqcuisition proceeds and to explain this processand why some learners seem to be better at it than other.
Two case studiesA case study is a detailed of study of a learner’s acquisition of an L2.The two case studies which we will now examine were both longitudinal.
One is of an adult learner learningEnglish in suroundings where it servesas a means of daily communication andthe other of two children learningEnglish classroom.
A case study of an adult learnerWes = native of Japanese.Visit Hawaii, in connection with his work, that he had opportunities to use English.After three years , he become quite a skilled conversation alist, very effective at negitiating complex business deals in English and even able to give talks about his paintings in english. He was also highly skilled at repairing communication breakdowns.
A case study of two child learners The focus of this study was request and find out how two learners acquired the ability to perform requests for service and goods over the period of study. Request can be performed in variety of ways in English.
By the end of the study,Two learners’ ability to use requests had grown considerably.
Methodological Issues SLA researchers recognize the need to investigate how the relationship between form and fungtion in learners’ output compares with that of native speakers.
Issues in the description oflearners language Schmidt found that the order of accuracy of the different grammatical features that he investigated was the same at the beginning of his study as at the end.
Issues in the explanation of L2acquisition. why was acquisition in these learners so incomplete?- They simply needed more time to learn.- It also possible that L2 learners, like children aqcuiring their L1, just stop learning.