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Ontologies in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC)

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Workshop Ontology Modelling - Session 3
Barcelona, 19-21 December 2011

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Ontologies in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC)

  1. 1. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Session 3 Ontologies in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) Workshop Ontology Modelling Barcelona, 19-21 December 2011
  2. 2. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Outline 1. Ontologies in the AEC sector: state of the art (P. Pauwels) 2. Case 1: architectural design information (P. Pauwels) 3. Case 2: energy related data (Alvaro Sicilia, Fàtima Galàn)
  3. 3. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture USE OF ONTOLOGIES IN THE AEC SECTOR: STATE OF THE ART 3
  4. 4. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture There have always been ontologies, also in the AEC sector…
  5. 5. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Google
  6. 6. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Databases
  7. 7. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Programming code in UML
  8. 8. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture [1] P. Pauwels, D. Van Deursen, J. De Roo, T. Van Ackere, R. De Meyer, R. Van de Walle, J. Van Campenhout. Threedimensional information exchange over the semantic web for the domain of architecture, engineering, and construction. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 25 (4) 2011, 317-332.
  9. 9. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture AutoCAD
  10. 10. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture 3DSMax
  11. 11. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!-- edited with XMLSpy v2010 rel. 2 (http://www.altova.com) by Don Brutzman (Naval Postgraduate School) --> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" elementFormDefault="qualified" attributeFormDefault="unqualified" version="3.1.2"> <!--======================================================================--> <!-- Public and private schema extension mechanisms --> <xs:include schemaLocation="x3d-3.1-Web3dExtensionsPublic.xsd"/> <xs:include schemaLocation="x3d-3.1-Web3dExtensionsPrivate.xsd"/> […] <xs:group name="ComposedGeometryContentModel"> <xs:annotation> <xs:appinfo>ComposedGeometryContentModel is the child-node content model corresponding to X3DComposedGeometryNodes. It can contain Color (or ColorRGBA), Coordinate, Normal and TextureCoordinate, in any order. No more than one instance of these nodes is allowed. Multiple VertexAttribute (FloatVertexAttribute, Matrix3VertexAttribute, Matrix4VertexAttribute) nodes can also be contained.</xs:appinfo> <xs:documentation source="http://www.web3d.org/x3d/specifications/ISO-IEC-19775-1.2-X3DAbstractSpecification/Part01/components/geometry3D.html#IndexedFaceSet"/> </xs:annotation> <xs:choice> <xs:element ref="FloatVertexAttribute"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>attrib</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> <xs:element ref="Matrix3VertexAttribute"> <xs:annotation> <xs:documentation>attrib</xs:documentation> </xs:annotation> </xs:element> […] X3D Schema in XSD / XML [2] X3D Schema Definition. http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.1.xsd.
  12. 12. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture So, what about the BIM approach?
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  17. 17. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture [3] R. Verstraeten, P. Pauwels, R. De Meyer, W. Meeus, J. Van Campenhout, G. Lateur. IFC-based calculation of the Flemish energy performance standard. In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Product and Process Modelling 2008.
  18. 18. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Current situation in construction industry
  19. 19. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Current situation in construction industry
  20. 20. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Current situation in construction industry
  21. 21. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Semantic web technologies: Let us link all information together using one common generic language
  22. 22. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture design [4] Linked Data – Connect Distributed Data across the Web. http://linkeddata.org/ (2011)
  23. 23. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Just-in-time linking data ?
  24. 24. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Semantic web stack [5] Tim Berners-Lee. WWW past & future, 2003. http://www.w3.org/2003/Talks/0922-rsoc-tbl/.
  25. 25. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture RDF graphs [6] P. Pauwels, D. Van Deursen, R. Verstraeten, J. De Roo, R. De Meyer, R. Van de Walle, J. Van Campenhout. A semantic rule checking environment for building performance checking. Automation in Construction 20(5) 2011, 506-518.
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  27. 27. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Complex rules in an RDF graph [6] P. Pauwels, D. Van Deursen, R. Verstraeten, J. De Roo, R. De Meyer, R. Van de Walle, J. Van Campenhout. A semantic rule checking environment for building performance checking. Automation in Construction 20(5) 2011, 506-518.
  28. 28. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture SOAP Linked PubMed databases Open APIs
  29. 29. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Parallel descriptions of information : IFC/RDF + X3D/RDF + STL/RDF STL/RDF X3D/RDF IFC/RDF [7] P. Pauwels, D. Van Deursen, J. De Roo, T. Van Ackere, R. De Meyer, R. Van de Walle, J. Van Campenhout. Threedimensional information exchange over the semantic web for the domain of architecture, engineering, and construction. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 25 (4) 2011, 317-332.
  30. 30. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture CASE 1: ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN INFORMATION 30
  31. 31. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Convert existing ontologies to a semantic web version (OWL)
  32. 32. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture D2R server [8] C. Bizer, R. Cyganiak. D2R Server – Publishing relational databases on the semantic web. http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/d2r-server/.
  33. 33. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture IFC-to-RDF Mapping schema’s: 1. ifcXML to RDF/XML via XSLT transformation 1. Light-weight: conversion can occur completely on an instance level 2. Time-consuming and prone to errors: it takes time and concentration to build the XSLT file 3. Limited expressiveness of RDF/XML format (no rule functionality) 2. Translate EXPRESS schema to OWL ontology and use the ontology to build RDF instance graphs 1. Less prone to errors: once the mapping between EXPRESS elements and OWL elements is made, everything goes smoothly and correctly 2. High expressiveness because of N3 syntax [9] P. Pauwels, D. Van Deursen, R. Verstraeten, J. De Roo, R. De Meyer, R. Van de Walle, J. Van Campenhout. A semantic rule checking environment for building performance checking. Automation in Construction 20(5) 2011, 506-518.
  34. 34. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture RDF view on IFC • IFC specification is written in EXPRESS ENTITY IfcDoor SUBTYPE OF ( IfcBuildingElement); OverallHeight : OPTIONAL IfcPositiveLengthMeasure; OverallWidth : OPTIONAL IfcPositiveLengthMeasure; END_ENTITY; • Two tasks – automatic transformation of EXPRESS to OWL/RDF – automatic conversion of IFC to RDF instances
  35. 35. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Simplified OWL representation of IFC ENTITY IfcDoor SUBTYPE OF ( IfcBuildingElement); OverallHeight : OPTIONAL IfcPositiveLengthMeasure; OverallWidth : OPTIONAL IfcPositiveLengthMeasure; END_ENTITY; TYPE IfcPositiveLengthMeasure = REAL; END_TYPE; ifc:IfcDoor rdfs:subClassOf ifc:IfcBuildingElement; a owl:Class. ifc:overallHeight rdfs:domain ifc:IfcDoor; rdfs:range xsd:double; a owl:DatatypeProperty. ifc:overallWidth rdfs:domain ifc:IfcDoor; rdfs:range xsd:double; a owl:DatatypeProperty.
  36. 36. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture EXPRESS to OWL: challenges • Name conflicts – RDF properties are independent of classes (<> EXPRESS) – are the semantics still the same? • Conversion of rules expressed in EXPRESS to N3 rules ENTITY IfcPixelTexture Width : IfcInteger; Height : IfcInteger; WHERE WR21 : Width >= 1; END_ENTITY; • Conversion of functions expressed in EXPRESS to ??? – built-in functions, N3 rules, ...
  37. 37. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture IFC-to-RDF Online service that converts building information in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) schema into an RDF graph [10] MultimediaLab. IFC-to-RDF service. http://ninsuna.elis.ugent.be/IfcRDFService. [11] MultimediaLab. IFC/RDF SPARQL endpoint. http://ninsuna.elis.ugent.be/SPARQLEndpoint/.
  38. 38. @prefix : <http://multimedialab.elis.ugent.be/ontologies/ifc/instances#>. @prefix ifc: <http://multimedialab.elis.ugent.be/ontologies/ifc/ontology#>. @prefix list: <http://www.co-ode.org/ontologies/lists/2008/09/11/list.owl#>. @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#>. @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture :ifcOrganization_1 ifc:name "Autodesk Revit Architecture 2010"^^xsd:normalizedString; ifc:theIfcId "1"^^xsd:long; rdf:type ifc:IfcOrganization. :ifcApplication_2 ifc:applicationDeveloper :ifcOrganization_1; ifc:version "2010"^^xsd:normalizedString; ifc:applicationFullName "Autodesk Revit Architecture 2010"^^xsd:normalizedString; ifc:applicationIdentifier "Revit"^^xsd:normalizedString; ifc:theIfcId "2"^^xsd:long; rdf:type ifc:IfcApplication. :ifcCartesianPoint_4 ifc:coordinates ( "0.0"^^xsd:double "0.0"^^xsd:double ); ifc:theIfcId "4"^^xsd:long; rdf:type ifc:IfcCartesianPoint. :ifcDirection_5 ifc:directionRatios ( "1.0"^^xsd:double "0.0"^^xsd:double "0.0"^^xsd:double ); ifc:theIfcId "5"^^xsd:long; rdf:type ifc:IfcDirection. :ifcDirection_10 ifc:directionRatios ( "0.0"^^xsd:double "0.0"^^xsd:double "-1.0"^^xsd:double ); ifc:theIfcId "10"^^xsd:long; rdf:type ifc:IfcDirection. :ifcDirection_11 ifc:directionRatios ( "1.0"^^xsd:double "0.0"^^xsd:double ); ifc:theIfcId "11"^^xsd:long;
  39. 39. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Pubby OpenLink Virtuoso SPARQL endpoint [12] R. Cyganiak, C. Bizer. Pubby – A linked data frontend for SPARQL endpoints. http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/pubby/. [13] OpenLink Software. Virtuoso Universal Server. http://virtuoso.openlinksw.com/.
  40. 40. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture …
  41. 41. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Build new ontologies and new information models
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  46. 46. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Architectural Information Modelling (AIM)
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  48. 48. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture [14] P. Pauwels, D. Di Mascio, R. De Meyer, J. Van Campenhout. About the interpretation of virtual heritage artefacts: case study of the Tower of Books in Ghent, Belgium. In: Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (2012) (submitted).

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