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Das Internet

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Das Internet - wie es funktioniert und aufgebaut ist.
Ein Lernbeispiel von RGM Informatik

Published in: Internet
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Das Internet

  1. 1. WWW World Wide Web– Das Internet
  2. 2. Was ist das Internet Technik Organisation Statistik
  3. 3. Geschichte des Internets  Ende der 60er: ARPANET (Pentagon) “Unzerstörbares” und Plattform-unabhängiges Netz  70er-80er: Einführung in Universitäten  90er: Private und WWW (World Wide Web) Der Anfang
  4. 4. Was ist das Internet  Weltweites Netzwerk für Datenaustausch  Besteht aus vielen kleineren Netzwerken  Basiert auf dem TCP/IP Protokoll (Paketvermittlung)  Gehört niemandem  Wird von niemandem kontrolliert oder verwaltet  Nur Sie bestimmen, welche Informationen Sie wollen
  5. 5. Das Internet in Zahlen  Weder die Interblase noch die Finanzkrise konnte das Wachstum stoppen  1e+09 = 1’000’000’000 = 1 Milliarde Immer noch im Wachstum
  6. 6. Anzahl Domain-Names für .ch und .li Quelle Switch
  7. 7. Wozu kann das Internet benutzt werden Ein Paar Beispiele
  8. 8. Struktur des Internets ISP = Internet Solution Provider
  9. 9. ISP  Zugriff auf Internet  E-Mail-Postfächer  Storage (Speicherplatz)  Webserver  FTP-Server  Datenbankserver  Statistiken Internet Solution Provider
  10. 10. Was kostet das Internet  ISP  PC / Tablet / SmartPhone muss nicht das neuste Modell sein  Kabelmodem, ADSL-Router, Router mit Multiplexer (bei Glasfaser)  Diese Geräte können enthalten  Firewall  DHCP-Server  WLAN  VLAN  VPN  NAT  QoS (Quality of Services, wichtig für VOIP)  USB-Steckplatz für LTE/4G-Netz (Mobile, Fallbacklösung) Abhängig vom Nutzverhalten
  11. 11. Wichtige Organisationen  IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ist zuständig für Zuordnung von IP-Adressen und Namen  ICANN: Entscheidet über TLDs, IP Adressen, Protokollparameter und Portnummern  ISOC: Kümmert sich um die technische Zukunft des Internet.  W3.org - das World Wide Web Consortium: Zuständig für Standards wie HTML und CSS  RIPE.net: Die europäische Internetzentrale in Amsterdam. Zuweisung von IP-Adressen an ISPs Im Internet
  12. 12. Internet- adressen Domain URL, bzw. URI Auflösung DNS Registrar
  13. 13. Internet-Adressen URL  Eine Webseite ist im Prinzip ein Dokument  Jede Seite hat eine eindeutige Adresse:  URL: Uniform Ressource Locator  URI: Universal Resource Identifier nach Tim Berners-Lee, nach W3C: Uniform …
  14. 14. Internetadresse  Jede URL wird von rechts nach links gelesen.  Vor dem ch müsste noch ein Punkt geschrieben werden! Rechner / Domain www .rgm .ch www = Rechnername Domainname Top-Level- Domain
  15. 15. Die korrekte URL Mit Protokoll und Pfad http:// www .ch ./ index.ht ml Top-Level- Domain Root Pfad / Dateiname DomainProtokoll
  16. 16. Verzeichnisse  Zusätzlich können noch weitere Verzeichnisse und eine Ressource angegeben werden http://www.rgm.ch./views/html/course.php Ressourcen
  17. 17. Weiteres Beispiel sbb.ch (geben Sie einmal nur diese Bezeichnung im Browser ein
  18. 18. Domänenhierarchie Gilt weltweit .
  19. 19. Top-Level-Domains  Erweiterungen USA und international:  com: Commercial  edu: Educational  mil: Military  gov: Government  org: Organisation  biz:  info:  museum Nicht alle sind ausserhalb der USA verfügbar  Erweiterungen in anderen Länder:  ch: Schweiz  de: Deutschland  fr: Frankreich  uk: Grossbritannien  jp: Japan  Einige Länder kombinieren beide
  20. 20. Wichtige Organisationen  nic.com: Internationale Domänen  switch.ch: zuständig für die Schweiz (Teil der ETH)  denic.de: Zuständig für Deutschland  Achtung: switchplus.ch ist eine Registrierungsstelle, ein Registrar  Switch ist verantwortlich für das .ch-Domain-Namen-Verzeichnis und verkauft keine Domänen-Namen mehr  Für Toplevel-Domains wie .de oder .tv muss der Inhaber nicht in diesem Land leben Registrieren
  21. 21. Switch Whois
  22. 22. Switch Liste der Registrierungsstellen
  23. 23. Switchplus Domäne frei:
  24. 24. Switchplus Domänen verwalten: Mutieren, verlängern, kündigen
  25. 25. GoDaddy Ein weiterer Registar
  26. 26. Protokolle  Protokoll ist die “Sprache“  http: Hyper Text Transfer Protokoll  https: Hyper Text Transfer Secure Protokoll  ftp: File Transfer Protokoll  ftps: File Transfer Protokoll über SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), d.h. mit Verschlüsselung  smtp: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Zum Versenden von Mails)  smtps: Mit SSL (Verschlüsselung) http muss im Browser nicht angegeben werden http://www.solothurn.rgm.ch
  27. 27. DNS  Wenn wir eine URL eingeben, wird eine Anfrage an den Domain Name Server (DNS) geschickt  überprüft, ob die URL existiert  wenn Ja, wird die URL in eine IP Adresse aufgelöst und als solche retourniert  Danach wird die Seite mittels der IP-Adresse aufgerufen  Wenn die Adresse nicht existiert, wird eine Fehlermeldung ausgelöst Domain Name Services
  28. 28. DNS Domain Name Services www.rgm.ch 157.64.204.89 DNS für .ch
  29. 29. DNS Domain Name Services www.ford.com 95.34.177.250 DNS für .com
  30. 30. DNS Domain Name Services www.fiat.it 134.57.104.6 DNS für .it
  31. 31. Protokolle Ohne Sprachen geht nichts
  32. 32. IP Address Blocks  http://tools.tracemyip.org/search--country/switzerland  Nachteil: Man surft nicht anonym  Ausländische Online-Shops können auf Seiten mit «Schweizer Preisen» umleiten  Ausweg: Proxy-Server  Achtung: Nicht alle sind sicher (Anti-Viren) http://www.nirsoft.net/countryip/ch.html
  33. 33. Wie funktioniert das Internet Client-Server-Prinzip
  34. 34. Was ist ein PoP Point of Presence
  35. 35. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol  Ende 1960 begann die Entwicklung durch DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), die dem Verteidigungsministerium der Vereinigten Staaten (DoD) untersteht  Dabei entstand das DoD-Schichtenmodell, daraus das TCP/IP- Referenzmodell  Die Dateien werden mittels zwei Protokollen übermittelt  Transport Control Protocol (TCP) verwaltet den Transport der Dateien  Internet Protocol (IP) verwaltet die Adressierung der Dateien TCP/IP
  36. 36. Referenzmodelle OSI und TCP/IP
  37. 37. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  38. 38. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  39. 39. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  40. 40. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  41. 41. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  42. 42. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  43. 43. Funktionsweise Paketvermittlung
  44. 44. Suchmaschi nen Nicht nur Google
  45. 45. Wie finde ich URLs?  “Erraten“ Man versucht mit bekannten Firmennamen:  www.sbb.ch  www.lufthansa.de  www.lego.com
  46. 46. Wie finde ich URLs?  Internet Katalog Adressen nach Themen gegliedert: Unterhaltung Musik  Klassisch  Barock
  47. 47. Wie finde ich URLs?  Suchmaschine: Die Internetdokumente werden nach Schlüsselwörtern durchsucht: Käsekuchen Hotels Luzern Spanien Temperatur Ju
  48. 48. Suchmaschinen  Volltextsuchmaschinen  Kataloge  Metasuchmaschinen
  49. 49. Kataloge  Riesiges Inhaltverzeichnis  Nach Themen gegliedert  Prominenten Vertreter war Yahoo!  Es gibt nur wenige Open Directories Inhaltverzeichnisse
  50. 50. Volltextsuchmaschinen  Suchen nach Begriffen in Text  Suchen nach Einträgen in den Meta-Tags (Meta-Tags sind Bestandteile einer Web-Seite, welche nicht angezeigt werden, jedoch Informationen insbesondere für Suchmaschinen enthalten) Es gibt sich nur Google
  51. 51. Meta-Suchmaschinen  Haben keinen eigenen Datenbestand  Suchen Informationen in mehreren Suchmaschinen Es wird alles gefunden
  52. 52. Alternative Suchmaschinen  Yahoo  Bing  Ask  DuckDuckGo  Aol
  53. 53. Schweizer Suchmaschinen  search.ch  yoogle.ch  suchportal-schweiz.ch
  54. 54. Schweizer Meta-Suchmaschinen  www.metacrawler.ch
  55. 55. Weitere Informationen
  56. 56. Lust auf mehr?  Laufend Lehrgänge im Bereich ICT, Web, New Media, Office, Betriebssysteme und Netzwerke:  www.rgm.ch

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