Chapter 1, RESOURCESClass VIII, Social Science (Geography)Additional Important QuestionsQ.1: What is a resource? What are the criteria (requirements) for any substance to become aresource?Q.2: Name the different types of resources.Q.3: On the basis of origin classify natural resources.Q.4: How do we classify natural resources on the basis of their stock?Q.5: What do you understand by sustainable development? Also mention its basic principlesChapter 1, Resources and Development |CBSE Class 8 NCERT Geography | Answers of ExtraSample QuestionsCbse Board Class 8, Ncert Social Science (Geography)RESOURCES - Answers of Sample QuestionsAnswer.1: All those substances which have some utility or usability are resources for us.The different criteria required for anything to be resource for us are - (i) utility or usability. (ii) economic value or any other value. (iii) time and technology inherent, which can make the substance important for present orfuture requirements of the people. For example, invention of fire, wheel etc.Answer.2: In general there are three types of resources: Natural, Human - made, and Human.Natural ResourcesResources that are drawn from nature and used without much modification are called NaturalResources. For example, air, water in well, rivers and lakes, soil, minerals etc. Natural resourcesare further divided into various types such as Actual, Potential, Abiotic, Biotic, Renewable, Non-renewable, Ubiquitous and Localized resources.
Human - Made ResourcesSuch resources which have been changed from their original form by human effort are called asHuman - Made Resources. For example, buildings, roads, bridges etc. Technology is also animportant example of Human - Made Resources.Human ResourcesSince people can make the best use of nature to create more resources with the help of theirknowledge, skill and technology, so, people are human resources. Human resources refer to thenumber and abilities of the people.Answer.3: On the basis of origin natural resources are classified into Abiotic and Biotic.Abiotic Resources: These are non-living natural resources like - soils, rocks, minerals etc.Biotic resources: These are living natural resources like - plants and animals.Answer.4: On the basis of stock natural resources are further classified or subdivided intoRenewable and Non-renewable types.Renewable Resources: Such resources are renewed quickly. These are found in abundance andunaffected by human activities. For example, solar and wind energy.Non-Renewable Resources: Such resources have a limited stock in the nature and may takethousands of years to get renewed. Since this period is much more than human life spans, so,they are called Non-Renewable Resources. For example, coal deposits, petroleum deposits etc.Answer.5: Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is calledsustainable development. In other words carefully utilizing resources so that besides meetingthe present requirements it also takes care of the need of future generation is known assustainable development. The basic principles of sustainable development are given below:1. Respect and care for all forms of life.2. Improve the quality of human life.3. Conserve the earth’s vitality and diversity.4. Minimize the depletion of natural resources.5. Change personal attitude and practices towards the environment.6. Enable communities to care for their own environmenQ.1: Answer the following questions.(i) Why are resources distributed unequally over the earth?
(ii) What is the resource conservation?(iii) Why are human resources important?(iv) What is sustainable development?Ans:(i) The distribution of natural resources depends upon a number of physical factors like terrain,climate and altitude. And these factors are not same everywhere and vary from place to placeon the earth. Hence we find the distribution of resources unequal over the earth.(ii) Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resourceconservation.(iii) People are human resources and human resources are important because people can makethe best uses of nature to create more resources by applying knowledge, skill and technology.(iv) Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is calledsustainable development. In other words, carefully utilizing resources so that besides meetingthe present requirements it also takes care of the need of future generations is what is knownas sustainable development.Q.2: Tick the correct answer.(i) Which one of the following does not make substance a resource?(a) utility (b) value (c) quantity(ii) Which one of the following is a human made resource?(a) medicines to treat cancer (b) spring water (c) tropical forests(iii) Complete the statement.Biotic resources are _______(a) derived from living things(b) made by human beings(c) derived from non-living thingsAns: (i)-c (ii)-a (iii)-a.Q.3: Differentiate between the following:(a) Potential and Actual resources.
(b) Ubiquitous and Localized resourcesAns:(a) Differentiation between Potential and Actual resourcesPotential ResourcesActual Resources1. Potential resources are those resources whose entire quantity is not known.2. They are not being used at present due to non-availability of technology to develop them.3. For example, uranium in Ladakh.1. Actual resources are those resources whose quantity is known.2. They are being used at present with the existing technology.3. For example, rich coal deposit in Ruhr valley of Germany, black soil in Deccan Trap ofMaharashtra.(b) Differentiation between Ubiquitous and Localized resourcesUbiquitous ResourcesLocalized Resources1. Ubiquitous resources are those resources which are found everywhere.2. For example, land, water, air.1. Resources found only in certain places are called localized resources.2. For example, copper, bauxite, gold etc.Farman: A royal edict or royal order which has been issued by the king or emperor.
Qazi: A judge in the Mughal period for Mughals. During the British period also the criminalcourts were under a Qazi and a Mufti.Mufti: A jurist of Muslim community who is responsible for expounding the law that the Qaziwould administer.Dharmashastras: Sanskrit texts which prescribe social rules and codes of behavior composedfrom C (Century) 500 BCE (before Christ Era) onwards.Sample Questions (following latest CCE pattern of questions)Short type Questions with their AnswersQ.1: How were the regional kingdoms set up after Aurangzeb’s death?Ans: After his death in 1707, several Mughal governors (Subadars) and big Zamindars beganasserting their authority and setting up regional kingdoms.Q.2: Which new power began emerging on the political scene after the fall of Mughals?Ans: By the second half of the 18th century, a new power began emerging on political horizon.This power was the British.Q.3: How could mercantile company make profits?Ans:Mercantile trading companies in those days made profits primarily by excluding competition.
They could buy cheap & sell dear.Q.4: What led to intense conflicts of the companies with local rulers?Ans:The effort to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trades led to intense conflicts with localrulers.The company found it difficult to separate trade from politics.Q.5: When and where was the first English factory set up?Ans: The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651. This was thebase from which the company’s traders who were known at that time as ‘factors’ operated.Q.6: Name the village which the company got from the Mughal officials.Ans: Name of one village was Kalikata, which later grew into the city of Calcutta or Kolkata as itis known today.Q.7: Who was the last Mughal powerful ruler?Ans: Aurangzeb was the last Mughal powerful ruler.Q.8: Why could Delhi not function as an effective center?Ans: As we know that Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal ruler but after his death therewas no such effective Mughal ruler to rule the country. So, Zamindars started to rule the countrybut they didn’t give such importance to Delhi. The Zamindars wanted to make their own profit.They did not want Delhi as the capital of their kingdom. When Aurangzeb died in 1707, thenSubadars and big Zamindars began to assert their authority and establishing regional kingdoms.So, Delhi could no longer function as an effective center.
Q.9: Did you know how Plassey got its name?Ans: Plassey is an anglicized pronunciation of Palashi. The place derived its name from thePalash tree known for its beautiful red flowers that yield Gulal, the powder used in the festivalof Holi.Long type Questions with their AnswersQ.1: Explain major features of the Doctrine of Lapse.Ans: The major features of the Doctrine of Lapse are:The Doctrine of Lapse was devised by Lord Dalhousie who was the Governor General of Indiafrom 1848 to 1856. According to this doctrine - if an Indian ruler died without a male heir hiskingdom would ‘lapse’. It would become a part of company territory.The company annexed several kingdoms simply by applying this doctrine.These kingdoms included Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853) andJhansi (1854).At last the company also annexed Awadh in 1856. This time the British argued that they were‘obliged by duty’ to take over Awadh in order to free the people from the misgovernment ofNawab.Enraged by the humiliating way in which the Nawab was deposed, the people of Awadh joinedthe great revolt that broke out in 1857.Q.2: Why was there a competition amongst the European companies and what was the result?Ans: There was a competition amongst the European companies because all of them wanted togain control over India which was well-known for its spices and other goods. Indian was knownas the ‘Land of Spices’. Indian spices like - pepper, cloves, cardamom & cinnamon were in greatdemand in European market. The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a bigmarket in Europe. The European companies used to purchase these things at a very low price inIndia and sold them at a huge profit in the European market.
The problem was that all the companies were interested in buying the same things. So the onlyway the trading company could flourish was by eliminating rival competitors. The competitionand the urge to secure markets therefore led to fierce battles between the trading companies.Throughout the 17th & 18th centuries they regularly sank each other’s ships, blockaded routesand prevented rival ships from moving with the supplies of goods. They had to carry their tradeswith arms and fortify their trading posts.Q.3: Why did the British find it difficult to separate trade from politics?Ans: There was already an intense competition amongst the European companies who weretrading in India. This led to fierce battles amongst them. Throughout the 17th & 18th centuriesthey were regularly engaged in sinking each other’s ships, blockaded routes and prevented rivalships from moving with the supplies of goods. They had to carry their trades with arms andfortify their trading posts. This effort to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trade also ledto intense conflicts with local rulers. Therefore the company found it difficult to separate tradefrom politics.Q.4: Why did the company official win the Battle of Plassey & how?Ans: In 1757, Robert Clive led the company’s army against Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah of Bengal atPlassey. Mir Zafar was the commander-in-chief of Siraj-ud-daulah’s army who was secretlypromised by the company officials that if he supports the British and loses the battle against theBritish then he would be made the future Nawab of Bengal. After this Mir Zafar deceived Siraj-ud-daulah and never ordered his army to fight and thus deliberately lost the battle. The Battle ofPlassey is considered to be very important in the History of India since this was the first majorvictory of the British in India which made them much more superior than before.Q.5: What is the meaning of ‘Nabob’?Ans: ‘Nabobs’ were the people who managed to return with huge money and wealth to theirown countries from India and led a lavish life. Nabob is an anglicized pronunciation of the Indianword Nawab. Nabobs were considered as the social climbers in the British society and were
often ridiculed or made fun in plays and cartoons.Q.6: What is the policy of ‘Paramountcy’?Ans: Under Lord Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India, the policy of Paramountcy wasstarted. According to this policy, the authority of the company was paramount or supreme andtherefore its power was greater than the power of Indian states. According to this policy, theBritish could annex or capture any Indian kingdom.Q.7: What were the policies used for expressions?Ans: The policies used for expressions during the British period were - (i) Policy of Non-Intersection. (ii) Policy of Paramountcy.(iii) Doctrine of Lapse.