Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

History of management by wren(part 1 of 2)


Published on

History of Management Thought as compiled by Lorelyn T. Dumaug from Wren

Published in: Education, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

History of management by wren(part 1 of 2)

  1. 1. By Lorelyn T. Dumaug Based on The History of Management Thought, 5th edition, 2005 by Daniel A. Wren
  2. 2. Early Management Theory
  3. 3. Tzu and Machiavelli
  4. 4. Sun Tzu <ul><li>Ancient Chinese Military General </li></ul><ul><li>Strategist and philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Authored the Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in 544-496 B.C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sun Tzu’s Art of War <ul><li>It presents a philosophy of war for managing conflicts and winning battles </li></ul><ul><li>Popular among political leaders and those in business management. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite its title,  The Art of War  addresses strategy in a broad fashion, touching upon public administration and planning. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Art of War:Chapter Summaru <ul><li>Laying Plans/The Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Waging War/The Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Attack by Stratagem/The Plan of Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical Dispositions/Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Energy/Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Points & Strong/Illusion and Reality </li></ul><ul><li>Maneuvering/Engaging The Force </li></ul>
  7. 7. Art of War:Chapter Summaru <ul><li>Variation in Tactics/The Nine Variations </li></ul><ul><li>The Army on the March/Moving The Force </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain/Situational Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>The Nine Situations/Nine Terrains </li></ul><ul><li>The Attack by Fire/Fiery Attack </li></ul><ul><li>The Use of Spies/The Use of Intelligence   </li></ul>
  8. 8. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli <ul><li>An Italian historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Rennaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>He is one of the main founders of modern political science  </li></ul><ul><li>Author of “The Prince” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Machiavelli’s “The Prince” <ul><li>claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic  and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning how to consider politics and ethics. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Machiavelli’s “The Prince” <ul><li>Political behavior  were perceived as shocking by contemporaries, and its immorality is still a subject of serious discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>  Advises princes how to tyrannize  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tzu and Machiavelli <ul><li>In the works of these two military strategists have long lived as huge influences to governments, militaries, and even corporations, forever reminding us of the importance of historical influence on the dawn of the future. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Thomas Carlyle </li></ul>
  13. 13. Thomas Carlyle <ul><li>4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881 </li></ul><ul><li>  Scottish satirical  writer, essayist, historian and teacher during the Victorian era. </li></ul><ul><li>Coming from a strict Calvinist family, Carlyle was expected to become a preacher by his parents but lost his Christian faith but kept his Calvinist values. </li></ul><ul><li>This combination, of a religious temperament with loss of faith in traditional Christianity, made Carlyle's work appealing to many Victorians who were grappling with scientific and political changes that threatened the traditional social order. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Great Man Theory <ul><li>popular idea in the 19th century according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of &quot;great men“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;the history of the world is but the biography of great men.&quot;  </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Frederick Taylor </li></ul>
  16. 17. Frederick Winslow Taylor <ul><li>March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve indusrial efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>  He is regarded as the father of scientific management  and was one of the first management consultants. </li></ul><ul><li>He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era. </li></ul>
  17. 18. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Also known as “Taylorism” - was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main obejective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of process and to management. </li></ul>
  18. 19. SOLDIERING <ul><li>Taylor observed that most workers who are forced to perform repetitive tasks tend to work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished. Taylor used the term &quot;soldiering&quot; and observed that, when paid the same amount, workers will tend to do the amount of work that the slowest among them does.   </li></ul>
  19. 20. SOLDIERING <ul><li>Taylor himself prominently acknowledged (although many white-collar imitators of his ideas would forget) that if each employee's compensation was linked to their output, their productivity would go up. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 21. SHOVELING <ul><li>Taylor said that labor should include rest breaks so that the worker has time to recover from fatigue, either physical (as in shoveling or lifting) or mental (as in the ball inspection case). Workers were taught to take more rests during work, and as a result production &quot;paradoxically&quot; increased. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Making jobs unpleasant <ul><li>Under Taylorism, workers work effort increased in intensity. Workers became dissatisfied with the work environment and angry. </li></ul>
  22. 24. George Elton Mayo
  23. 25. George Elton Mayo <ul><li>George Elton Mayo (26 December 1880 - 7 September 1949) was an Australian psychologist, sociologist and organization theorist. </li></ul><ul><li>He lectured at the University of Queensland from 1911 to 1923 before moving to the University of Pennsylvannia spent most of his career at Harvard Business School teaching on industrial research. </li></ul>
  24. 26. George Elton Mayo <ul><li>Founder of the Human Relations Movement </li></ul><ul><li>is known for his research including the Hawthorn Studies </li></ul><ul><li>his book The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization (1933). </li></ul>
  25. 27. Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>showed the importance of groups in affecting the behaviour of individuals at work. </li></ul><ul><li>that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the work group. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Where norms of cooperation and higher output were established because of a feeling of importance---physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. </li></ul><ul><li>People will form work groups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization </li></ul>
  27. 29. Conclusion on Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Mayo concluded that people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content . </li></ul>
  28. 30. Summary of Mayo's Beliefs <ul><li>Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation, but must be seen as members of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary incentives and good working conditions are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Summary of Mayo's Beliefs <ul><li>Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Max Weber
  31. 34. Karl Emil Maximilian &quot;Max&quot; Weber <ul><li>21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) </li></ul><ul><li>was a German sociologist and politico economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research and the disciple of sociology itself. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Purpose of a  Bureaucracy   <ul><li>is to successfully implement the actions of an organization of any size (but often associated with large entities such as government, corporations, and NGO’s), in achieving its purpose and mission, and the bureaucracy is tasked to determine how it can achieve its purpose and mission with the greatest possible efficiency and at the least cost of any resources </li></ul>
  33. 36. Weber’s Bureaucratic Principles <ul><li>1 . A formal hierarchical structure </li></ul><ul><li>2. Management by rules </li></ul><ul><li>3. Organization by functional specialty </li></ul>
  34. 37. Weber’s Bureaucratic Principles <ul><li>4. An &quot;up-focused&quot; or &quot;in-focused&quot; mission </li></ul><ul><li>5. Purposely impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>6. Employment based on technical qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>7. Predisposition to grow in staff &quot;above the line. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Weberian Bureaucracy <ul><li>Bureaucratic administration means fundamentally domination through knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>-Max Weber </li></ul>
  36. 39. Weberian Bureaucracy <ul><li>The decisive reason for the advance of bureaucratic organization has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organization </li></ul><ul><li>–  Max Weber </li></ul>
  37. 40. Weberian Bureaucracy <ul><li>In order to counteract bureaucrats, the system needs entrepreneurs and politicians . </li></ul>
  38. 41. Management Theory and Practice
  39. 42. <ul><li>Part 2 </li></ul>
  40. 44. Organizational theory <ul><li>Organizational theory is a set of ideas and studies as to how people interact in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding organizational theory is the first step towards understanding your employees and yourself. </li></ul>
  41. 45. Small-Batch Production <ul><li>Organizations that create small amounts of high-value products or services (such as computer programs, legal advice or copywriting) tend to focus more on the people making the product and less on the product itself. </li></ul>
  42. 46. Large-Batch Production <ul><li>Some companies create large amounts of products and services. Rather than sell small amounts of products for a large amount of money they do the opposite (relative to cost). </li></ul><ul><li>The lower levels of these companies will have large amounts of less-skilled people who earn less pay, and more managers. </li></ul>
  43. 47. Classical Theory <ul><li>It follows a scientific method: examining every factor involved in production, adjusting one at a time, and assessing whether it increases or decreases productivity. </li></ul>
  44. 48. Neo-Classical Theory <ul><li>It recognizes the fact that workers often behave irrationally, responding to non-economic incentives such as increased lighting or a better sense of a connection between their labor and the finished product. </li></ul>
  45. 49. Centralization vs Decentralization <ul><li>Both of these can work, depending on the needs and culture of the organization in question, so it is important to understand the benefits and drawbacks of both of them. </li></ul>
  46. 50. Centralization <ul><li>Centralized organizations are essentially bureaucracies. Everyone has to report to a superior before they make decisions, and everything is eventually run by the head office. </li></ul>
  47. 51. Decentralization <ul><li>A decentralized organization, on the other hand, is one that lets managers make their own decisions and focuses on results rather than following a set-in-stone process. </li></ul>
  48. 53. Organization Culture <ul><li>Organizational culture is “a cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by the organization’s members. </li></ul>
  49. 54. Organization Culture <ul><li>Helps to establish a sense of identity for employees within the organization and therefore can facilitate comfort and a greater likelihood of internalizing organization goals.  </li></ul>
  50. 55. Organization Culture <ul><li>Provides a status quo and maintains stability in processes, communication and role interaction.  </li></ul>
  51. 56. Organizational values <ul><li>beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals. </li></ul>
  52. 57. Strong/weak cultures <ul><li>Strong culture  is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values. In such environments, strong cultures help firms operate like well-oiled machines, cruising along with outstanding execution and perhaps minor tweaking of existing procedures here and there. </li></ul>
  53. 58. Strong/weak cultures <ul><li>Conversely, there is  weak culture  where there is little alignment with organizational values and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy. </li></ul>
  54. 59. Characteristics of Healthy organizational cultures <ul><li>Acceptance and appreciation for diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the company </li></ul>
  55. 60. Characteristics of Healthy organizational cultures <ul><li>Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company </li></ul>
  56. 61. Characteristics of Healthy organizational cultures <ul><li>Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues </li></ul><ul><li>Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose </li></ul>
  57. 62. Characteristics of Healthy organizational cultures <ul><li>Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service, as well as price </li></ul><ul><li>Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture) </li></ul>
  58. 63. Characteristics of Healthy organizational cultures <ul><li>Investment in learning, training, and employee knowledge </li></ul>
  59. 64. 4 TYPES OF CULTURE <ul><li>Power Culture </li></ul><ul><li>  Role Culture </li></ul><ul><li>  Task Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Person Culture   </li></ul>
  60. 65. POWER CULTURE <ul><li>Power  among a few. </li></ul><ul><li>Control radiates from the center like a web. </li></ul><ul><li>Power and influence spread out from a central figure or group. Power desires from the top person and personal relationships with that individual matters more than any formal title of position. </li></ul><ul><li>Power Cultures have few rules and little bureaucracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Swift decisions can ensue. </li></ul>
  61. 66. ROLE CULTURE <ul><li>In a  Role Culture , people have clearly delegated authorities within a highly defined structure. </li></ul><ul><li>form hierarchical bureaucracies. </li></ul><ul><li>Power derives from a person's position and little scope exists for expert power. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by procedures, roles descriptions and authority definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable and consistent systems and procedures are highly valued. </li></ul>
  62. 67. TASK CULTURE <ul><li>  Task Culture , teams are formed to solve particular problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Power derives from expertise as long as a team requires expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>These cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines of a matrix structure. </li></ul><ul><li>It is all a small team approach, who are highly skilled and specialist in their own markets of experience. </li></ul>
  63. 68. PERSON CULTURE <ul><li>A  Person Culture  exists where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Survival can become difficult for such organizations, since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue the organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Some professional partnerships can operate as person cultures, because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm . </li></ul>
  64. 70. Industrial/Organizational Psychology <ul><li>I–O psychology is &quot;the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work:... in the process of making a living&quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>Blum and Naylor (1968) define it as &quot;simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry“. </li></ul>
  65. 71. Common Field/Area for I-O <ul><li>Job Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Student/educational selection and assessment </li></ul>
  66. 72. Common Field/Area for I-O <ul><li>Student/educational selection and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometrics </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul>
  67. 73. Common Field/Area for I-O <ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Training Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Law </li></ul><ul><li>Work Motivation </li></ul>
  68. 74. Common Field/Area for I-O <ul><li>Occupational Health and Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Development </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Technology in the Workplace </li></ul>
  69. 76. Learning Organization <ul><li>A learning organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. </li></ul>
  70. 77. Learning Organization <ul><li>A learning organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. </li></ul>
  71. 78. <ul><li>THANK YOU! </li></ul>