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  1. 1. FILIPINO VALUES: ITS UNIVERSALITY WITH HUMAN DIGNITY No. 4 Reporter By: Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. I. Introduction Human values are not only necessary but are also indispensable factors in the study ofmanagement and administration. Organization’s success is dependent on the organizational culture itadopted and practice for time. The type of culture, in order to be successful, is also a function of thevalues of all its stakeholders. The trend now, which is generally recognized, is to analyze and consider the common values ofthe workers, managers and all members of the organization instead of adopting foreign values to forminto an organizational culture and is adopted by or may be imposed upon every member of theorganization. Filipino values are associated with the basic concept of man and the recognition of humandignity. These are, in fact, aligned with the universally accepted human values especially among civilizedand democratic nations. Studies of indigenous core Filipino values which are determined through ourlanguage and local dialects are currently continuing in order for us to understand the Filipino psyche, theFilipino type of leadership, the Filipinos that are to be led and the type Filipino clientele. The use of Filipino values in Philippine management and administration is therefore veryimportant especially in Philippine setting to ensure (1) absence of conflict between local and foreignvalues, (2) development of a particular Filipino organizational behavior and (3) unity of values andorganizational culture fitting among Filipino leaders and stakeholder. II. Man and Values Values defined the very purpose and the direction of the life of man. They are good, important,necessary and desirable in life. As part of man’s existence, they also provide significance to what anorganization is. When values are chosen, men in societies and organizations will tend to live apurposeful, meaningful and satisfying life. Values can be learned and acquired through actual practice. Knowing the objectivity of values is very important since it requires a person to act on it andfailure to respond to the call of the values, it is not actually the values that are destroyed but it is theman himself. Quality of life is obtain because of our values and they are part of our life being the one thatimpels to act, basis for our commitments and the grounds and standards for our manners, behavior andeven expression, the norms and the principles of our lives and the criteria in appreciating beauty andother aesthetic considerations and other economic utilities. Through values, it generate and ought-to-be and an ought-to-do which are the basis for ourresponsibilities, obligations, beliefs and attitudes without being similar with those concepts.Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 1 of 6 pages.
  2. 2. An author, Martin Buber, provides that man is always in dialogue with the world. The innerbeing of man has a component of a being of response and ability, and it is freedom which is theprecondition of man’s response to another, whether such is another human being, a thing, a particularevent or in his belief of God. Buber further reiterates that the opposite of constraint is actually acommunion meaning for man to be free is to be a person able to respond to the call of communion.Values are therefore experienced in a particular dialogic relationship of man as a being and as a person.Animals on the other hand are compelled by their biological need with the force of a natural physicallaw to satisfy their animalistic necessities but with values it calls for a free response from man. Hence,the experience of values is actually the experience of man. The notion that values are created may notbe true but it is discovered by man himself in his participation with the world. There are three diverse acts of man that makes him a unique person and these are (1) the act ofreflection or our being a thinking man, (2) of the acts of ideation or abstraction, as our coming in as anessence from our being part of existence, and (3) the act of loving. Of the three, the last is the mostimportant character of man as a person for man is really capable of loving. To love and even to hate arethe basic acts of men of which all its other are coming from them. A person is one through what sheloves and hates. Loving and hating are actually actions of the heart directed towards certain values and they aregeared towards certain hierarchy of values. Hatred is not the opposite of love but it is Apathy and in thehierarchy of values, love direct us towards higher values while hatred to lower values. In the hierarchy of values, the sensory values refer generally to what is pleasant and unpleasant,of technical and luxury values. Next to that are the vital values of what are noble and vulgar and theseare what we called the values of civilization. The spiritual values of justice and injustice, of truth andfalsehood and our appreciation of beauty and ugliness are the next to sensory and vital values. Thehighest are the values of what are holy and unholy. The spiritual and the holy values are values thatrefer to our being man and spirit. The above enumerated order or ranking of values are subjectively appreciated based on man’sconcrete realization of the different kinds of values. Like hatred, it is a confusion of the heart for itwrongly changes the ranking of values. According to Scheles, what is good (positive) and evil (negative)cannot be found in the ranking of values but rather in their realization. An action is good if it chooseshigher positive value rather than a lower or a negative value. In like manner, an action is evil if it prefersa lower or negative value instead of a higher or positive one. Logically, without action and man who acton it there is actually no moral good or evil will happen. Hence, moral values are actually personal valuesfor they came from man himself. If what is good is actually a realization of higher values, what is spiritualand holy refer to our person. And if evil is the realization of lower values, the sensory and the vitalvalues can be likened to animals. Therefore, good values enhance our being a person while evildegenerate our humanity. At the end, the moral act of doing good and evil is based on man and not on any moralauthority. Through a model person, values derives an ‘ought to do’ and without a man to be emulatedor modeled upon there will be no standards, norms, responsibility or obligations. In moral values,Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 2 of 6 pages.
  3. 3. nothing can make a man good but the intuition of those exemplified by a model person whose loveinvites other to follow. Model persons are the way of value transformation of man in our society today. III. What Do You Mean By Values? APPROACH/ VIEWS DEFINITION OF VALUES Platos formulation of the absolute values of Truth, Goodness and Beauty. They are conceived as having independent existence of their own and are used as ideal norms for value judgment at the Idea-Normative Approach relative level of human existence. Attainment of a state of eternal bliss by the realization of identity of the individual self with the Universal Self of this absolute reality is the highest and ultimate object of human striving. Based on a metaphysical belief system which accepts the reality of Theistic View a divine cosmic order and faith in the authority of a creator God who is also the upholder of all values. Development of a new ethics of man based on interconnectedness Humanist Thought of humankind, love and respect for life, the joy of sharing and caring, and the faith in man to shape his own identity. It views values as a distinct component of the total human personality, which guide or affect attitude and behavior of the individuals and social groups. In Schwartzs view, values are Empirical-Purposive "responses to 3 universal requirements with which all individuals Approach and societies must cope: needs of individual biological organisms, requisites of coordinated social interaction and requirements for smooth functioning and survival of groups. 3 Levels: Individual, Sociological and Ecological. Individual refers to the level where the human being, taken as an independent entity and it refers to survival values, character, virtues. Aesthetic appreciation, human rights, salvation, self-realization. The second level refers to values at the collective level of human society which includes the family, social institutions, sense of social responsibility, Level of Aggregation values of humanity and human interconnectedness, etc. Third level refers to the inclusion of human being as part of the total ecological system, a sense of identification with future generations and the inter-dependency of man and nature and include expressive terms like respect for and harmony with nature, sustainability, conservation, etc.Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 3 of 6 pages.
  4. 4. IV. Filipino Values: What are those Values? Surface Values NEGATIVE MEANING (WITH Core Value POSITIVE MEANING COLONIAL MENTALITY & SUPERIORITY COMPLEX) Unity or oneness Fixation/ Self- Pakitang Tao/ of a person with Blame/ ought to Pakikipagkapwa Hiya Dangal Gaya-Gaya/ other people be Ashamed/ Hawa- Hawa and denying Shame Shared inner perception Pride/ Fiesta driven by a Amor Sensitivity to Pakiramdam Self Esteem Grande/ sense of Propio Personal Affront Karangalan awareness and sensitivity. Inner Being. Non- Irresponsibility Gulong Ng separation of Wheel of and Loob Palad/ Pananampalataya the Mind and Fortune Dependence/ Kapalaran the Heart. Pagsasabukas Adversarial/ Pakikitungo/ Confrontational/ Kagandahang Pakikisama sa Loob/ Pakikiisa/ Kabuktutan/ Introjection/ Damayan or Bata System/ Smooth Empathy or Pagpahalaga Sa Close Family Lakad System/ Pakikisama Interpersonal Participation on Pamilya/Familial Ties Pakikialam or Relationship/ Anothers meddling/ Companionship Experience/ Euphemism or Malasakit or Salitang Pag- sympathy for iwas/ Use of go someone or between or Submissiveness to ones Binding responsibility covenant of and personal Sublimation/Hel commitment to independence/ Paniniwala Sa ping One help or to care Psychological Diyos/ To leave Another/ for another/ Justification for Bayanihan Bahala Na ones life in the Kawanggawa/Pa Psychological their failure to care of God/ gtutulungan/Pak defense to cope take up human Determinism ikipagkapwa tao up with responisbility adversities and and failures accountability in times of crises and hardships Indebtedness to Compensation/ Patrons/ Pananampalataya Utang Na Sense of Inner Debt of Gratitude Pakiusap/ Sa Diyos Loob debt Nepotism/ Kapangyarihan V. Conceptual Framework COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEX Filipino Value Type If Lacking/Absent Surface Value HIYA AMOR PROPIO KAPALARAN PAKIKISAMA BAHALA NA UTANG NA LOOB BAD PANINIWALA PAGPAHALAGA SA DIYOS SA PAMILYA PAKIRAMDAM LOOB BAYANIHAN WORSE Core Values KAPWA WORST COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEXHumanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 4 of 6 pages.
  5. 5. VI. Universality of Filipino Values PROPOSED BROAD- FREEDOM HELPFULNESS ACCOMPLISHMENT HONESTY SELF-RESPECT CREATIVITY EQUALITY INTELLIGENCE RESPONSIBILITY SOCIAL ORDER WEALTH COMPETENCE JUSTICE SECURITY SPRITUALITY LIST MINDEDNESS No. 9 9 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 High Personal Profit/ Productivity/ Value Dignity/ Employee Maximizati Organizational Questionnai Liberalism/ Achievement/ Prestige/ Organizational Welfare/ - Tolerance Creativity Equality Rational - on/ Efficiency/ - Security Religion re (PVQ) Autonomy Success Honor/ Stability Social Welfare Money/ Ability/ Skill/ (England, Individuality Property Industry 1967) Leadership Rokeach Family Value Self Respect/ Logical/ Freedom/ Helpful/ A sense of A World at Security/ Inner Survey (RVS) Honest Social Broad-minded Imaginative Equality Intellectual/ Responsible - Capable - Independent Salvation accomplishment Peace National Harmony (Rokeach, Recognition Wisdom Security 1973) Self Respect/ Schwartz Freedom/ Social A varied Family A Spiritual Values Social Order/ Independent/ Successful/ Recognotion/ life/ Intelligent/ Social Security/ Life/ Inner Survey (SVS) Helpful Honest Broad-minded Equality Responsible A World at Wealth Capable Choosing Own Meaning in life Preserving Creativity/ Wisdom Justice National Harmony/ (Schwartz, Peace Goals My Public Curious Security Devout 1994) Image Personal Value Scale Academic Independence - Honesty Status - Creativity - Intellectualism - - - - - - Religiousness (PVS) (Scott, Achievement 1965) List of Values Sense of Self-respect/ (LOV) Autonomy - Accomplishment/ - Being Well - - - - - - - - - Security - (Kahle, Self fulfillment Respect 1988) Life Values Inventory Concern for Objective Financial (LVI) (Crace Independence Achievement - - - Creativity - Responsibility - - - - Sprituality Others Analysis Prosperity & Brown, 1995) Comparative Emphasis Scale (CES) - Helping Achievement Honesty - - - - - - - - - Fairness - - (Revlin & Meglino, 1987) Value Human Sensitive Ownership Welfare/ Informed Freedom Design (VES) Autonomy - Identity - - - Accountability - and - - - - Universal Consent from Bias (Friedman, Property Usability 2006) Allocation of Resources/ Production Human Bernthal Freedom The Good Life Self-Realization - - - - - - Order Profits and Justice Security - Dignity Distribution of Goods and Services Broad- Creativity/ McDonald Moral Integrity/ Social Autonomy Consideration - - mindedness/ Experiment Logic - Orderliness Economy - Fairness - - and Ganz Openness Equality Adaptability ation Fair Corporate Bird and Honesty in Special Treatment/ Respect for Organizational - - - - - - Social - - - - Waters Communication Consideration Fair Law Responsibility Responsibility Competition Jurkiewicz & Benevolence/ - - Integrity Respect Receptivity - - - Responsibility - - - Justice - - Giacalone Humanism VII. Can Filipino Values an effective means of managing people in an organization? Like any universal values, Filipino values can be integrated in managing and administering anorganization. However, there’s a need to stop condemning Filipino traditional values as sources of ourweakness and compare is as an inferior one than western values. Second, is to understand that ourorganization’s services are for the Filipinos in a Philippine setting and with Filipino workers orstakeholders. Lastly, is the willingness of all to accept Filipino values to be integrated into theorganizational structure and to replace Western values which are successful in western settings.Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 5 of 6 pages.
  6. 6. The structural channels that can be utilized to integrate this Filipino values are through trainings,reorientation of the top management to become models, the use of modern technology in promotingour indigenous values and to improve the recruitment process, compensation schemes, develop amonitoring system and to impose certain discipline to ensure the incorporation of Filipino values intothe organization. VIII. Recommendations The following are recommended in an organization: a. Conduct of Team Building and b. Improve Communication Protocol by employing consultation, Persuasion, Consensus,through motivations and to lead by example.Humanistic Foundations| Report No. 4 on Filipino Values |Dr. Manalo | Mr. Roderico Y. Dumaug, Jr. 6 of 6 pages.