INNER MAN. MENTALISTIC . According to William James, all our obligations, all of what we call good and what we call bad, do not exist as good and bad per se. They are OUR constructions and are for each of us but a product of each individual’s wants, needs and desires.BEHAVIORAL THEORYBF Skinner posits that values come from your personal experience. You get punished or rewarded for things you did, and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem good and bad.ID EGO SUPEREGO. Freud posits that we have evolutionary-based instinctual drives – ID based dives to prefer certain things; we develop over time a consciousness of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want – EGO based drives – and we have a set of culturally and parentally induced should and should not – SUPEREGO based drives – that spend a good amount of time in a tension – producing conflict between what we value and what we prefer.LABELING THEORYAccording to this theory, things, ideas, events, behavior, are neither good nor bad per se. It is society which labels them as either good or bad. If a society comes to an agreement that something is good, then it becomes good; when society labels it as bad, then it becomes bad.
Values defined the very purpose and the direction of the life of man. They are good, important, necessary and desirable in life. As part of man’s existence, they also provide significance to what an organization is. When values are chosen, men in societies and organizations will tend to live a purposeful, meaningful and satisfying life. Values can be learned and acquired through actual practice. Knowing the objectivity of values is very important since it requires a person to act on it and failure to respond to the call of the values, it is not actually the values that are destroyed but it is the man himself. Quality of life is obtain because of our values and they are part of our life being the one that impels to act, basis for our commitments and the grounds and standards for our manners, behavior and even expression, the norms and the principles of our lives and the criteria in appreciating beauty and other aesthetic considerations and other economic utilities.Through values, it generate and ought-to-be and an ought-to-do which are the basis for our responsibilities, obligations, beliefs and attitudes without being similar with those concepts.
An author, Martin Buber, provides that man is always in dialogue with the world. The inner being of man has a component of a being of response and ability, and it is freedom which is the precondition of man’s response to another, whether such is another human being, a thing, a particular event or in his belief of God. Buber further reiterates that the opposite of constraint is actually a communion meaning for man to be free is to be a person able to respond to the call of communion. Values are therefore experienced in a particular dialogic relationship of man as a being and as a person. Animals on the other hand are compelled by their biological need with the force of a natural physical law to satisfy their animalistic necessities but with values it calls for a free response from man. Hence, the experience of values is actually the experience of man.
The notion that values are created may not be true but it is discovered by man himself in his participation with the world. There are three diverse acts of man that makes him a unique person and these are (1) the act of reflection or our being a thinking man, (2) of the acts of ideation or abstraction, as our coming in as an essence from our being part of existence, and (3) the act of loving. Of the three, the last is the most important character of man as a person for man is really capable of loving. To love and even to hate are the basic acts of men of which all its other are coming from them. A person is one through what she loves and hates. Loving and hating are actually actions of the heart directed towards certain values and they are geared towards certain hierarchy of values. Hatred is not the opposite of love but it is Apathy and in the hierarchy of values, love direct us towards higher values while hatred to lower values.
In the hierarchy of values, the sensory values refer generally to what is pleasant and unpleasant, of technical and luxury values. Next to that are the vital values of what are noble and vulgar and these are what we called the values of civilization. The spiritual values of justice and injustice, of truth and falsehood and our appreciation of beauty and ugliness are the next to sensory and vital values. The highest are the values of what are holy and unholy. The spiritual and the holy values are values that refer to our being man and spirit. The above enumerated order or ranking of values are subjectively appreciated based on man’s concrete realization of the different kinds of values. Like hatred, it is a confusion of the heart for it wrongly changes the ranking of values. According to Scheles, what is good (positive) and evil (negative) cannot be found in the ranking of values but rather in their realization. An action is good if it chooses higher positive value rather than a lower or a negative value. In like manner, an action is evil if it prefers a lower or negative value instead of a higher or positive one. Logically, without action and man who act on it there is actually no moral good or evil will happen. Hence, moral values are actually personal values for they came from man himself. If what is good is actually a realization of higher values, what is spiritual and holy refer to our person. And if evil is the realization of lower values, the sensory and the vital values can be likened to animals. Therefore, good values enhance our being a person while evil degenerate our humanity. At the end, the moral act of doing good and evil is based on man and not on any moral authority. Through a model person, values derives an ‘ought to do’ and without a man to be emulated or modeled upon there will be no standards, norms, responsibility or obligations. In moral values, nothing can make a man good but the intuition of those exemplified by a model person whose love invites other to follow. Model persons are the way of value transformation of man in our society today.
Much has been said about so-called negative Filipino traits. They have been blamed for the weak character of the Filipino; they are the culprits, the scapegoat of our failures, or at least, the explanation for lagging behind more successful Asian neighbors. I propose to take a second look at these so-called negatives in the Filipino psyche to determine whether there might be a positive aspect, a saving face, a silver lining behind the dark clouds. In attempting to see an ambivalence in our traits, I will use oriental yardsticks to measure success or failure for it would be unfair to use Western standards to evaluate our Filipino traits. For example, is a materially comfortable life with physiological ailments more successful than a materially deprived life without physical ailments? Is the image of Juan Tamad waiting for a guava to fall such a reprehensible, if not scandalous, picture? Is the similar image of Sir Isaac Newton, also resting under a tree, more refreshing? It is very Filipino to stress our minus points, to find fault in our behavior, to compare us unfavorably with Westerners by using Western standards. It is common to hear such names as BertongBukol, or IpengPilay or HusengNgongo. It seems that we take pleasure in underscoring our weaknesses, faults, defects, etc. Our standards are smallness, averageness, mediocrity; grandeur or grandness is not in the Filipino vocabulary. The West, in contrast, evokes: Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, DerFührer, Il Duce, El Caudillo, Elizabeth Regina. We seem to enjoy being humble and meek, or what Friedrich Nietzsche called "the morality of slaves." There is something strange in the very way we look upon success. A person is not supposed to exert effort at the expense of sanity. We ridicule a person who teaches himself how to think and label him Tasio, the philosopher. We warn persons not to learn too much lest they be like Jose Rizal who was executed at the Luneta in 1896. Assertiveness is frowned upon because it smacks of pride and ruthlessness. Success to the Filipino, must come naturally; it should not be induced or artificially contrived. One should not be successful at an early age because that would mean exertion and hard work. Success must come very late in life, if it is to come at all. Filipino traits must be understood in the above context. Hence, they are considered negative only according to other yardsticks. The following Filipino traits show an ambivalence of positive and negative aspects.
PRECONDITIONAL STAGE: CHILDHOOD - is the phase wherein children comply with the values of those who assert power on them (parents, teachers, nuns, and priests).2. THE CONVENTIONAL STAGE: YOUTH- during the conventional stage or youth, adolescence identify with their peers, idols and teachers due to interpersonal communication.3. POSTCONVENTIONAL STAGE: ADULTHOOD - the people internalize the values they have imbibed in the first two stages without fear.
Hiya (shame) Negative, because it arrests or inhibits one's action. This trait reduces one to smallness or to what Nietzsche calls the "morality of slaves", thus congealing the soul of the Filipino and emasculating him, making him timid, meek and weak. Positive, because, it contributes to peace of mind and lack of stress by not even trying to achieve.
Saving FaceNegative, because, being closely related to hiya and kasi, it enables a person to shirk responsibility. One is never accountable for anything. Positive, because one's psyche is saved from undue embarrassment, sleepless nights, remorse of conscience. It saves one from accountability or responsibility. This trait enables one to make a graceful exit from guilt instead of facing the music and owning responsibility for an offense.
Pakikisama (group loyalty) Negative, because one closes one's eyes to evils like graft and corruption in order to conserve peace and harmony in a group at the expense of one's comfort. Positive, because one lives for others; peace or lack of dissension is a constant goal.
Bahalana (resignation) Negative, because one leaves everything to chance under the pretext of trusting in Divine providence. This trait is really laziness disguised in religious garb. Positive, because one relies on a superior power rather than on one's own. It is conducive to humility, modesty, and lack of arrogance.
Utangnaloob (indebtedness) Negative, because one overlooks moral principles when one is indebted to a person. One who is beholden to another person will do anything to please him, thinking that by doing so he is able to repay a debt. One condones what the other person does and will never censure him for wrongdoing. Positive, because it is a recognition of one's indebtedness. This trait portrays the spirit behind the Filipino saying, "He who does not know how to look to the past will never reach his destination."
Discuss the indigenisation movementThat Bayanihan is not only centered in the Tagalog speaking nation
FILIPINO VALUES POLITICAL/ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM
FILIPINO VALUES POLITICAL/ ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMSUCCESS OR FAILURE OF ASTATE OR ORGANIZATION
VALUE CLARIFICATION PROCESS• Value is chosen freely.• It is chosen among alternatives• There is celebration• There is public affirmation of choice • The value must be acted upon • Acting must be repeatedly done • Value should enhance one’s development
CLASSIFICATION OF VALUES: ECONOMIC VALUES BEHAVIORAL VALUES SOCIAL VALUES NON-SOCIAL & SELF-CONCERN VALUES MORAL & SPIRITUAL VALUES
• The “Inner Man” or Mentalistic Theory of Values by William James • The “Outer Man” ortheories Behavioral Theory of Valueson the by BF Skinner • The “Id” ; “Ego” ; “Superego”origins Theory of Values andof values Preferences by Sigmund Freud • The Labeling Theory or Cultural Relativism Theory of Values
VALUES ARE DISCOVERED BY MAN INHIS PARTICIPATION WITH THE WORLD
“Bayanihan is derived from the root word Bayani first appeared in 1745 in a manuscript titled “Vocabulario de la LenguaTagala” by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucarwhich means Obra Comun or group work.” Magpabayani is another related word.
“The spirit that binds us together as one nation cannot be that of a class conflict, as Marxism would have it, or Adam Smith’s capitalist principle oflaissez faire (each one for himself), but the power which has transported, even in pre-Hispanic times, one whole house on the shoulders of people committed to help a friend in need: the spirit ofBayanihan, the word expressive of our Solidarity – working together as one nation. Raul J. Bonoan, S. J.”
COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEXFilipino Value Type If Lacking/Absent Surface Value HIYA AMOR PROPIO KAPALARAN PAKIKISAMA BAHALA NA UTANG NA LOOB BAD PANINIWALA PAGPAHALAGA SA DIYOS SA PAMILYA PAKIRAMDAM LOOB BAYANIHAN WORSE Core Values KAPWA WORST COLONIAL MENTALITY AND SUPERIORITY COMPLEX
B. F. SKINNER: SYSTEM THATBEYOND FREEDOM & DETERMINESDIGNITY OR INFLUENCE VALUES