REENGINEERINGLOCALGOVERNMENTS NGOsTOWARDS GOOD GOVERNANCE
To put the world right inorder, we must first put the nation in order; to put the nation in order, we mustfirst put the family in order; to put the family in order, we must first cultivate our personal life; we must first set our hearts right. Confucius
How do we value democracy, human dignity and To what extent do you accountability in the agree that reengineering Local Government? means strengthening local democracy?TALKING POINTS
How are we going to assess the relationship of the LGU Officials, its legislative district representative and the civil society or the NGO in terms of promoting democracy, transparency and accountability in the local government particularly in the area of curbing graft and corruption and solving the hardening poverty?TALKING POINTS
Local government units are the creation and a mechanism of the central government but, because Are local democracies of local autonomy, is not equal among the local subservient. To what government unit all extent do you agree? over the country?TALKING POINTS
Easton and Almond‟s GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY: Apolitical system has subsystems part of the entiresystem with assigned functions and enablingempowerment, resources, authority, etc. to performand carry out their responsibilities optimally
PHILIPPINE POLITICALSYSTEMDEMOCRATIC, REPUBLICAN,PRESIDENTIAL ANDUNITARY.DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLICAN,PRESIDENTIAL AND FEDERAL.DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLICAN,PARLIAMENTARY AND FEDERAL.DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLICAN,PARLIAMENTARY AND UNITARY.
TYPE OF GOVERNMENT LEADERS STATE As Between the As Between National As to Persons Ruling Head of State Head of Government Executive & Legislative and Local Luxembourg Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary District King Prime Minister Norway Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Unitary King Prime Minister Switzerland Democratic Republican Parliamentary Federal Federal Council President Qatar Monarchy Absolute Monarchy Emirate Unitary Emir Emir Denmark Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Unitary Queen Prime Minister Ireland Democratic Republican Parliamentary Counties President Prime Minister Netherlands Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Administrative Regions Queen Prime Minister United States Democratic Republican Presidential Federal President President Austria Democratic Republican Parliamentary Federal President ChancellorUnited Arab Emirates Monarchy Absolute Monarchy Presidential Federal President Prime Minister Australia Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Federal Queen Prime Minister Finland Democratic Republican Parliamentary Municipalities President Prime Minister Belgium Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Federal King Prime Minister Sweden Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Unitary King Prime Minister France Democratic Republican Semi-Presidential Unitary President President/Prime Minister Germany Democratic Republican Parliamentary Federal President Chancellor Japan Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Unitary Emperor Prime Minister Canada Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Federal Queen Prime Minister Iceland Democratic Republican Parliamentary Unitary President Prime Minister Singapore Democratic Republican Parliamentary Unitary President President/Prime Minister United Kingdom Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Unitary Queen Prime Minister Spain Democratic Constitutional Monarchy Parliamentary Autonomous Regions King Prime Minister Italy Democratic Republican Parliamentary Regionalised Unitary President Prime Minister Russia Democratic Republican Parliamentary Federal President President/Prime Minister
10 YARDSTICKS OF FEDERALISM 1 2 3 4 5 Exclusive Immunity Independence Amending Indestructible Control Against of Central the Identity on Foreign Secession Authority Federal and Relations Constitution Autonomy 6 7 8 9 10 Bicameralism Residual Two Sets Supreme Clear and Equal and of Court Division of Representation Significant Courts Powerof Unequal States Powers
1 Elastic Clause2 Federal Supervision3 Insure Democratic & Republican System4 Emergency Powers5 War & Foreign Policy6 Concurrent Powers7 Dependence of the Central Authority on the State A Economic and Social Imperatives B Population shift C External Pressures D Political cultures and Political parties
ABUEVA‟s DESCRIPTIONOF UNITARY SYSTEM political powers and authority are concentrated in the national government.
INTERNATIONAL UNION OFLOCAL AUTHORITIES IULA founded in 1913 in Belgium. Organization of international congresses for Inter-municipal relations and study. Consultative status, category B, of Economic and Social council of UN and maintains permanent contacts with UNESCO and WHO.
1. Anglo-Saxon Group2. Central and Northwest Group3. East Europe Group4. South Europe Group5. West Asia and North Africa Group6. South Asia and East Africa Group7. East Asia Group – Thailand, Philippines and Japan IULA‟s CLASSIFICATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM
BASIC TYPES OF LG SYSTEM* FRENCH ENGLISH SOVIET TRADITIONAL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL*Harold Alderfer
TIERS OF PHILIPPINELOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS PROVINCES CITIES MUNICIPALITIES BARANGAYS
TIERS OF PHILIPPINELOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS REGIONS LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS PROVINCES CITIES CITIES MUNICIPALITIES BARANGAYS BARANGAYS BARANGAYS
FUNCTIONS OF LGs1. For a stable democratic political environment ;2. Partner for regional and national development;3. Vested rights for a fair share of financial resources;4. Shared responsibility in the management of the country‟s human resources;5. Principle of check and balances with the central government.;6. Avenue for the flow of accurate information ;7. Guarantee of people‟s participation;8. Ensure political and social harmony;9. Ability to influence the central government in changing legislations;10.Accountability to the Central Government.;11.Local Government Units openness to innovations;
FISCAL PUBLIC POLITICAL FEDERALISM ADMINISTRATION SCIENCECOMMON THEORIES USED INUNDERSTANDING DECENTRALIZATION
FISCAL FEDERALISM “Fiscal federalism theories dealing withdecentralization focus on maximizing social welfare, which is portrayed as a combination of economicstability, allocative efficiency, and distributive equity.The precise combination and importance attached to each goal depends on the context, but the challengeof decentralization is essentially to locate resources at the level of government that optimizes social welfare” (Musgrave 1958: 132-33, 175-178).
FISCAL FEDERALISM1. DETERMINE TO WHICH EACH LEVEL OF GOVT. HAS FISCAL IMPACT.2. IF RESOURCES HAVE BEEN CEDED TO SUBNATIONAL UNITS, THEN CENTRAL GOVTS. HAVE, TO ONE DEGREE OR ANOTHER, LESS FISCAL IMPACT.3. BEST INDICATOR FOR THE LEVEL OF FISCAL CENTRALIZATION OR DECENTRALIZATION IS THE SHARE OF THE SUBNATIONAL EXPENDITURES AND REVENUES.
Comparative Philippine and China Central and Local Government Share in Revenue and The Philippines China Expenditure (2007; in Million (2004 ; 100M ITEM Pesos) Yuan) Central* Local** Central Local Revenue 1,096,875 234,760 14,503 11,893 % to Total 82.37% 17.63% 54.90% 45.10%Expenditure 1,029,377 194,736 7,894 20,592 % to Total 84.09% 15.91% 27.70% 72.30%* Net of IRA of P146,591.95 million** Inclusive of IRA of P146,591.95 millionSources: Philippine Commission on Audit 2007 FinancialReports; National Bureau of Statistics of China
Philippine Central and Local Government Revenue Breakdown*Central-Net of IRASource: Philippine Commission on Audit 2007 Financial Reports ITEM Central Local Total Revenue 82.37% 17.63% Tax Revenue* 93.08% 6.92% General Income Permits and Licenses 77.03% 22.97% Service Income 94.24% 5.76% Business Income 68.65% 31.35% Income 94.65% 5.35% Gain on ForEx 100.00% 0.00%
United States : Sources of State Revenue Percentage Source (US Average) General Sales Tax 23.5% Selective Sales Tax 10.9% Property Taxes 30.1% License and Other Fees 8.2% Corporate Income 4.7% Taxes Individual Income Taxes 22.6% Source: Tax Foundation Report : stateline.org
Central Central Government Local Government By Total Income * Government Expenditure % Region*Inclusive of IRA Expenditure to LG TotalSource: Figures are from the PhilippineCommission on Audit 2007 Financial Reports Income Grand Total 234,642,572.58 762,534,007.59 324.98% National Capital Region 46,778,401.48 560,070,716.35 1197.28% Region 1 11,410,059.53 14,371,248.27 125.95% CAR 6,223,710.33 7,499,513.73 120.50% Region 2 9,160,569.36 10,132,758.94 110.61% Region 3 20,888,920.59 21,590,013.29 103.36% Region 4 35,866,590.31 27,646,932.60 77.08% Region 5 10,993,973.34 15,101,341.54 137.36% Region 6 16,679,840.96 18,419,954.59 110.43% Region 7 15,555,455.12 14,027,680.75 90.18% Region 8 8,687,321.73 98,317,599.17 1131.74% Region 9 7,781,531.08 9,821,773.23 126.22% Region 10 11,300,406.23 11,512,490.21 101.88% Region 11 10,170,596.06 10,980,183.03 107.96% Region 12 8,285,249.49 8,623,777.18 104.09% Region 13 7,545,245.07 7,146,537.05 94.72% ARMM 7,354,701.68 8,753,883.18 119.02%
DECENTRALIZATION Decentralization involves the shifting of fiscal, political and administrative responsibilities from higher to lower levels of government.(Jamie Boex and Sirdar Yilmaz: 2010)
DEVOLUTION DELEGATION DECONCENTRATION Where the centralgovernment transfers Transfers policy Central governmentauthority for decision responsibility to local that disperses making, finance and governments responsibility for a management to local or semiautonomous policy to its field governments with organizations that are offices. This transfer legally recognized not controlled by the changes the spatial jurisdictions over central and geographical which they exercise government but distribution ofauthority. Central govt remain accountable to authority, but does not allows autonomous it. significantly change local units of govt to the autonomy of the exercise power and entity that receives the control over the authority. transferred policy.
DEVOLUTION DELEGATION DECONCENTRATION Devolution Delegation Deconcentration involves an involves a involves a bureaucratic,arm‟s-length contractual hierarchicalrelationship relationship. relationship
DEVOLUTION DELEGATION DECONCENTRATION Taxes Grants & Discretionary transfer of funds Loans
POLITICAL DECENTRALIZATION Political science theories dealing with decentralization focus on MOBILIZATION, ORGANIZATION, ARTICULATION, PARTICIPATION,CONTESTATION, and AGGREGATION of interests. (Fox and Aranda 1996).
The best way to summarize thesefunctions might be in terms ofrepresentation.“map the multiplicity of citizeninterests onto policy decisions”(Litvack et al. 2000: 6).
fuedalism = fused modelnation states = dual model
Fused, Centralized System Dual Autonomous System1. One, indivisible public authority Two spheres: central and local2. Strict standards for actions of local Legal context established by framework laws,authorities, very detailed regulation provided local policy formed by local laws adopted byby laws. local council All local powers are coming from council3. Local council has supervising role over which is delegated to local administration;administration or has to adopt laws/ decisions extensive comperence of council in localof central government to local needs leglislation. Administrative intervention by the National4. Direct administrative intervention and ex Government is prohibited, only court decisionante control of the central government to estabilish the legality of local decisions/ actions Considerable autonomy in formation of civil5. One indivisible civil service at all level service at local level6. Decisive role of state categorical grants to Extensive autonomy in taxation and spending,cover current expenditures, dependent of the state general grants to support capacitystate regulations spending
Local autonomy has been defined as the state of self-determination of local Sosmena government and their relative freedom from central government control over local affairs and concerns.LOCAL The higher the centralization of authority Abueva and decision making for a function, the lower the autonomy of the local government concerned.AUTONOMY As the degree of self-determination and self-government enjoyed by local units Alderfer in their relation with the central government thus implying a measure of independence from national control. Local autonomy as a combination of two elements: first, the right of local Mendoza & Lim entities to administer their own affairs freely in accordance with their own will, and second, the right of the local citizenry to determine that will.
Philippine Local Autonomy inthe Philippines: two of itsdimensional views (a)Historical-legal, and (b)Political-administrative.
Central supervision and control are highly visible in:1. Presidential power over local officials;2. Central supervision over local administrative and financial affairs3. Central control over development planning4. Integration of the police force5. Limitations on the use of specific funds and6. Centralization of personnel administration.
GOVERNMENT 9AUTONOMYANDSUPERVISION OF THEPRESIDENT
Supervision is power toSEE thatsubordinate officers perform theirduties.
Power of general supervision ≠ Power of Control