Architecture in vietnam and laos


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Architecture in vietnam and laos

  1. 1. VIETNAM and LAOS ARCHITECTURE History of Architecture 3 Prepared by: Archt. Clarissa L. Avendaño 1ST sem AY 2012-2013
  2. 2. • Socialist Republic of Vietnam • Boundaries: China - north Laos - northwest, Cambodia – southwest South China Sea - east • Became independent from Imperial China in 938 AD. • Colonized by the French in the mid-19th c • Divided by a Communist north and a capitalist south during the Cold War. • HANOI - capital city since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976.
  3. 3. Two main cities of Vietnam are both located next to large rivers. 1. Hanoi (north) - Red River. 2. Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon (south) - delta of the Mekong River.
  4. 4. • Vietnamese culture is an amalgamation of many ethnic groups such as the Cham, Khmer, Muong, Hmong and Chinese. • Vietnam's history goes back to the civilization of the Hung kings, about 400 years ago. Water Puppet
  5. 5. • Vietnam has no state religion. • Main religion is Buddhism, introduced during the Chinese occupation with classic monasteries and pagodas. • Hinduism is the first religion of the Champa kingdom brought from India. The Cham people erected Hindu temples (Bimong) throughout Central Vietnam. One Pillar Pagoda, Hanoi Old Hindu Temple
  6. 6. VIETNAM ‘s UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) inscribed on World Heritage Lists: Cultural 1. Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi (2010) 2. Citadel of the Ho Dynasty (2011) 3. Complex of Hue Monuments (1993) 4. Hoi An Ancient Town (1999) 5. My Son Sanctuary (1999) Natural 1. Ha Long Bay (1994) 2. Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (2003) Thang Long Citadel of the Ho Dynasty
  7. 7. HA LONG BAY • Located in the Gulf of Tonkin, within Quang Ninh Province, northeast of Vietnam • Covers an area 43,400 ha. with over 1600 islands and islets. • Seascape of limestone pillars/ mature Karst landforms
  8. 8. HOI AN ANCIENT TOWN • South-East Asian trading port in Quang Nam Province, which dates back from the 15th - 19th c. • Buildings and street plan reflect the influences, both indigenous (traditional Vietnamese) and foreign (Chinese, Japanese, etc.) Chinese Temple 1812.htm French-era building
  9. 9. HOI AN ANCIENT TOWN • Buildings are aligned along narrow lanes which include religious buildings, such as pagodas, temples, meeting houses; markets, houses and other which relate to the development of a port community. • Architecture almost entirely of wood. • Typical house conforms to a corridor plan, the following elements occurring in sequence: house, yard and house.
  11. 11. • Walled city, north side of the Perfume River. • Served as administrative capital of southern Vietnam in the 17th c. and again in the 18th c. • Planned according to ancient oriental philosophy and Vietnamese tradition : – Respect for the physical conditions of the site: – Perfume River as the main axis. – Ngu Binh mountain (Royal Screen). – Relationship between: – 5 cardinal points (centre, west, east, north, south) – 5 natural elements (earth, metal, wood, water, fire) – 5 basic colors (yellow, white, blue, black, red) HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS
  12. 12. • National capital of united Vietnam in 1802 – 1945 • Four citadels or defended enclosures made up the city 1. Kinh Thanh (Capital City) - official administrative buildings 2. Hoang Thanh (Imperial City) - royal palaces and shrines HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS
  13. 13. 3. Tu Cam Thanh (Forbidden Purple City or Inner City) - royal residences, similar to China where only the emperors, concubines, and those close enough to them were granted access. 3. Tran Binh Dai - additional defensive work in the northeast corner of the Capital City, designed to control movement on the river. – Tran Hai Thanh (Coastal Bastion) – 5th fortress constructed a little later to protect the capital against assault from the sea. HUE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS • Political, cultural and religious center under the Nguyen dynasty.
  14. 14. Monuments along the Perfume River: 1. Tombs of several emperors, including Minh Mạng, Khai Dịnh, and Tu Duc. 2. Thien Mụ Pagoda - largest pagoda in Hue and official symbol of the city. French-style buildings along the south bank of the Perfume River: 1. Quoc Học High School - the oldest high school in Vietnam 2. Hai Ba Trung High School Tu Duc TombThien Mu Pagoda Khai Dinh Tomb Hai Ba Trung High School Quoc Học High School
  15. 15. • Dates from the 4th -14th c., located in Duy Phú, Quảng Nam province in Central Vietnam, a valley surrounded by two mountain ranges. • Indian influenced Hindu temple complex, and political capital of the Cham dynasty. MY SON SANCTUARY
  16. 16. • Complex of temples and tombs • Tower temples were designed and built to symbolize Mt. Meru, the mythical sacred mountain of the Hindu gods at the center of the universe, symbolically reproduced on earth in the mountainous homeland of the Cham people. • Used of fired brick with stone pillars and decorated with sandstone bas-reliefs depicting scenes from Hindu mythology. MY SON SANCTUARY
  17. 17. HANOI FRENCH QUARTER • Wide tree-line boulevards and imposing colonial buildings which began in 1983. Hanoi Opera House History Museum blends Asian and European styles
  18. 18. • Centers on the Mekong River basin and rugged mountain terrain. • Boundaries:  Vietnam - east  Cambodia - south • Lao Kingdom in 1500s was part of the Kingdom of Siam. • Under French Colony • Received independence from France in 1949. LAOS
  19. 19. National Museum, Vat Ho Pha Bang World-Heritage-Site-Laos-Indochina-Posters_i8739295_.htm Vat Xieng Thong Site-Laos-Indochina-Southeast-Asia-Asia-Posters_i8738077_.htm • Royal capital in the mountainous region along the Mekong river. • Complex with Buddhist temples, monasteries and the village. • Fusion of traditional architecture and Lao urban structures with those built by the European colonial authorities in the 19th and 20th c. Buddhist Temple at Haw Kham (Royal Palace) complex HISTORIC TOWN OF LUANG PRABANG
  20. 20. That Pathum (Lotus Stupa), LUANG PRABANG • Known as That Makmo (watermelon stupa) • Reconstructed large squat stupa, Sri Lankan style. THAT – Lao Stupa Wat Phat Luang (Golden lotus bud), Vientiane • Site of a previous stupa of Khmer origin. • Mandala - Terraced Stupa. • Combination of Khmer, Lao and Ceylonese influences.
  21. 21. UNESCO World Heritage Sites: 1. The Historic Town of Luang Prabang 2. Wat Phou (Vat Phu) - ancient Hindu temple complex day-20111012-1lkhp.html WAT or VAT – Temple Mountain
  22. 22. REFERENCES: De la Croix, Horst and Richard Tansey. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages. Ancient, Medieval and Non-European Art. 7th ed. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. USA. 1976. Goepper, Roger. Landmarks of the World’s Art. The Oriental World. Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company, New Yorkl – Toronto. 1967. Harris, Cyril M. Historic Architecture Sourcebook. Mac Graw Hil, Inc. USA.1977. Palmes, J.C. Sir Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture. 18th ed. The Athlone Press, University of London. London Other Sources: Pictures and data from Internet Sources