Architecture in nepal and afghanistan


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  • Emperor Ashoka brought Buddhism in the 3rd c. and built many stupas to commemorate his missions.
  • Architecture in nepal and afghanistan

    1. 1. Tom Demsey
    2. 2. Village of Namche Bazaar, Sagarmath National Park, in the Himalaya of eastern Nep
    3. 3. SWAYAMBHUNATH, Kathmandu
    4. 4.
    5. 5. ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL History of Architecture 3 Prepared by: Archt. Clarissa L. Avendaño 1st sem AY 2012-2013
    6. 6. Lies between two great eastern civilization: 1. India - west, south and east 2. China - Tibetan autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in the north
    7. 7. I. GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCES • Total land area is 147,181 square kilometers • Three old capitals – Katmandu – Patan – Bhadgaon
    8. 8. Topographically divided into 3 regions: • Himalaya to the north Mt. Everest (8,848 m) - highest point • Hills consisting of the Mahabharat range and the Churia Hills • Terai to the south
    9. 9. KATHMANDU VALLEY • Crossroads of ancient civilization of Asia. • Named after a structure in Durbar Square called “Kaasthamandap” "wood + "covered shelter." Three Main Cities: 1. Kathmandu 2. Bhaktapur or Bhadgaon 3. Patan or Lalitpur
    10. 10. Karmali river, Népal Mt. Everest Himalayan Peaks, Nepal II. CLIMATIC INFLUENCES • Ranges from sub-tropical in the low lands to Arctic higher altitudes.
    11. 11. II. GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCES • WOOD used as columns ,beams, rafters and for construction of doors, windows and stairs. • METALS copper, iron, brass, bronze were commonly used. As it was expensive it was used on religious and door facings, lattice- works, door latches. • NATURAL STONE sedimentary rocks or metamorphic stone gathered from the quarries situated on the north and south sides of mountain slopes. • BRICKS AND TILES - mud bricks were used for construction of walls. Clay tiles were extensively used for roof coverings and for courtyard paving, terrace floors and floor coverings.
    12. 12. III. HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES • Newars and Gurkhas (of Tibetan Mongol stock) settled in early times and established an indigenous style in art and architecture which has never been modified. • Art flourished during the reign of Mulla Rajas (13th – 18th c.)
    13. 13. • Hinduism predominate religion with 86.5% of the population. IV. RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE Sadhus • Buddhism (Tibetan Tantric) is next largest religion, 7.8% • Islam, 3.5% 25/feature-02
    14. 14. • Temples, shrines, monuments and monasteries are extremely active with devotees burning butter-lamps, singing hymns, chiming temple bells and playing drums. Chomrong (Nepal) Prayer Manis Buddha with third eye on his forehead - symbolizes enlightenment in both Buddhism and Hinduism.
    15. 15. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER • Characteristic architectural heritage: 1. STUPAS/CHORTEN – oldest monuments 2. TEMPLES • Drawn from both cultures – India and China
    16. 16. SWAYAMBHUNATH, Kathmandu
    17. 17. BODHNATH, Kathmandu
    18. 18. Luhan Dega Temple Patan Bhai Dega temple Sikhara type Temple
    19. 19. MULTI-TIERED TEMPLES Maju Dega, Kathmandu plan and section Traditional Materials and Construction Technologies used in the Kathmandu Valley Caterina Bonapace and Valerio Sestini
    20. 20. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER 3. Towns: o Newar Architecture by the indigeneous inhabitants of Kathmandu valley. o Typical formal feature is the monumental pillar supporting a metal superstructure adorned with mystical symbols, group of divinities and portrait statuary of royalties.
    21. 21. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER 3. Towns: o Newars developed their own architectural styles and technology, mainly based on two building materials: wood and clay (bricks) with metal used for ornaments. o Street facades of houses, usually planned with interior courtyards are elaborately treated.
    22. 22. DURBAR SQUARE •generic name used to describe plazas opposite old royal palaces in Nepal. Kathmandu Bhaktapur Patan
    23. 23. o Typical formal feature is the monumental pillar supporting a metal superstructure adorned with mystical symbols, group of divinities and portrait statuary of royalties. Metal Statue of RAJA BHUPATINDRA MALL, DURBAR SQUARE, BHATGAON.
    24. 24. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER o Buildings are of 3 storey: Ground floor- served as a shop, recessed beneath an overhanging first floor which is overhung by the upper level.
    25. 25.  Each floor is supported by brackets and struts, ornately curved and sometimes painted.  Trabeated system of construction. Wooden posts, beams and struts used in the houses are clear intermingling of the structure and ornamentation.
    26. 26. • Covered with special clay tiles (jhingati) with metal gutters. ROOFS – most striking architectural feature: •Double pitched roof with the ridge on the line of the central spine wall. The structure is of timber and comprises columns on the central line. •Hovering roof form with bracket support overhanging precariously on building walls with bracket support. •Set one over the other in a Pagoda form. • Protect brick walls in mud mortar from the rain and sun: Overhang: • Dwelling - 1000mm • Vihara - 1500mm • Temples-up to 4000 mm.
    28. 28. • Craftsmanship can be seen in the lavished works on the pillars, lateral pilasters, lintels and beams or on the brackets which support the projecting eaves of the roofs. • Lintels over openings are of timber and often in three parts, stepping upwards towards the inside.
    29. 29. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER  Fully decorated with carvings, embossing, tinkling bells and hanging lamps. Lion Gate of Taleju Temple at Makhan Tole, Kathmandu
    30. 30. Houses in rural parts of Nepal are made up of stones and clay
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Sacred hill and temple of Swayambhunath, Kathmandu, Nepal
    33. 33. KATHMANDU SWAYAMBHUNATH Painting By Thubten Yeshe Sherpa, Namche Bazaar
    34. 34. SWAYAMBHUNATH, Kathmandu
    35. 35. 1. SWAYAMBHUNATH STUPA, Katmandu • Originally an Ashoka tumulus on a hill • Stands on a low narrow plinth (base or podium)
    36. 36. Stairway to Swayambhunath temple Swayambhunath temple, Kathmandu, Nepal nath_stupa.html
    37. 37. • Conical spire in 13 diminishing tiers symbolizing the 13 Buddhist heaven with umbrella apex. • Square base which has a large pair of human eyes – symbolizes the “All Seeing One.” ndEarth/html/heavens/artifact8-heaven-1280.html
    38. 38. • “All Seeing One” embossed in metal and ivory on each of the 4 sides.
    39. 39.
    40. 40.
    41. 41. Swayambhunath
    42. 42. BODHNATH, Katmandu • 3 platforms - 12.0 m. high • 14.0 m. high spire resembling the finial of Swayambhunath
    43. 43. BODHNATH Katmandu • Revered by Buddhist as well as Nepalese Hindus. • Gaya-jatri - festival to worship the holy cows.
    44. 44. Huge Buddha with Dalai Lama portrait Entrance area of a Buddhist temple
    45. 45. Temple in Kathmandu
    46. 46. Kathmandu Temple
    47. 47. Blending Nepali and classical architecture - Kathmandu, Nepal
    48. 48. PATAN EXAMPLES: • Lalitpur (the city of beauty) – ancient name • Circular in shape and situated about 3 miles south- east of Kathmandu, a short distance from the southern bank of the river Bagmati. • The Durbar Square, built in the reign of Raja Beer Deva in 299 A.D . • City full of Buddhist monuments • Shiva temples with fine bronze gateways, deities and endless carvings.
    49. 49. • Ancient royal residential square of Malla Kings. • Consist of the following: 1. Golden Gate 2. A place of 55 windows 3. The Lion Gate 4. Statue of Bhupatindra Malla 5. The biggest bell in the whole Kingdom 6. Pagodas and Sikhara temples DURBAR SQUARE (Mangle Bazaar)
    50. 50. Lunch on the roof looking at the old Palace- Patan
    51. 51. Newar town with monuments, palaces, pagodas and columns made of carved wood defines the root of Newa/Nepali architecture DURBAR SQUARE , KATHMANDU
    52. 52. 3. KRISHNA TEMPLE, Patan EXAMPLES: • Typical sikhara spire with clusters of small pavillions on each side of the 3 arcaded storey. • Carved stone frieze depicting romantic Krishna legend.
    53. 53. • Dates from the reign of Raja Ranjit Malla in 1786 AD. • Famous as the richest piece of art in the whole Kingdom. Golden Gate
    54. 54. • Old palace of brick walls remarkable for its carved balcony with 55 windows. built by Raja Yasksha Malla in 1427 AD. Place of 55 windows (National Gallery)
    55. 55. • Famous for its arts in column. • Erected by Raja Yaksha Malla in 1427 A.D. Statue of Bhupatindra Malla
    56. 56. Bhairavnath temple
    57. 57. • Stands on the banks of the Bagmati, dedicated to Lord Shiva • Holy Region of Hindu, and community of Nepalese Buddhists. • Consists of stone and wooden temples, with a burning ghat by the river 4. SACRED TOWN OF PASUPATI (17th c.)
    58. 58. • Dedicated to Lord Shiva the guardian deity of Nepal • Temples and shrines with golden gilt roof and large richly carved silver gates. • All the dyings are brought for cremation. EXAMPLES: PASUPATI NATH TEMPLE • Original pagoda styled temple before 6th c. • One of the most famous places of Hindu pilgrimage in the world.
    59. 59. Nepal, Kathmandu - Pashupatinath,_Kathmandu_-_Pashupatinath.htm
    60. 60. The Kali (black) Bhairab is one of Shiva's forms. 5. BHAIRAB TEMPLE
    61. 61. • One of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley dedicated to Vishnu constructed in the 3rd c. CHANGU NARAYAN TEMPLE Kathmandu Valley
    62. 62. • Also known as Bhaktpur(Bhaktapur) "city of devotee". • Home of medieval art and architecture . • Regarded as the oldest city of the valley . • Has its origin in the time of the Lichhavi rulers. Later in 889 A.D . • The city has as altitude of 4600 feet above the sea . It is 9 miles east of the Kathmandu. BHADGAON
    63. 63. • Mark of Nepalese temple designed in 1700 AD. • Shows significant innovations 1. increase of roof storeys and plinth steps on the one hand 2. Introduction of an open gallery surrounding the shrine cella on the other • Integrated various styles of near-contemporary monuments to make a convincing political and religious statement while erecting a temple to his personal deity. • The result is a building of the utmost harmony, defining mature rules and canons of temple design to be observed until the end of the Malla rule. NYATAPOLOA TEMPLE
    64. 64. PLAN
    66. 66. End of Nepalese Architecture
    67. 67. Bamiyan valley
    68. 68. BAMIYAN • Monasteries and temples – important for its relationship to Persia and Central Asia. • Huge group is carved out of a sandstone cliff face, interior honeycombed with sanctuaries and assembly halls extending for nearly 2 k. with painted niche at the end each sheltering a vast Buddha statue. • Eastern Image is 37 m. – enlarged 3rd c. Gandhara type • Western Image is 54 m. – 5th c., example of eclectic cosmopolitan influences of Buddhist art.
    69. 69. BAMIYAN • Statues are prototypes of colossal image cult which later appeared in China and Japan • Structural technique: – body and head rough hewn from the rock – Features and drapery modeled in mud mixed with straw , with lime plaster finished painted and gilded. • Rock cut sanctuaries and assembly halls – reflect building types once existing in Gandhara influenced by Graeco- Roman-Sassanian styles
    70. 70. BAMIYAN • Other features: – Cupola roofs spanning with arched squinches the square chamber angles in anticipation of the Sassanian fire-temples – lantern roof – Coffered dome – Elaborate system of hexagons (each containing a seated Buddha image) – Triangles rising to a central octagon.
    71. 71. According to the world press, this Buddha was destroyed by the Taliban.