AP WORLD HISTORY
Period 1, 2, & 3
8000BCE – 1400CE
Period 1
8000 BCE – 600 CE
5% of Test
The Paleolithic Age
• Most of human pre-history Paleolithic (“old” stone
age)
– Small-scale groups – 30 w/ yearly 500
– Ga...
The Neolithic Transition
• Melting of ice sheets (Holocene epoch) opened
fields, reduced game
• Haphazard then deliberate ...
Domestication
• Areas of world with most domesticable plants
and animals got jump-start
• Animals, starting with dogs, dom...
The Urban Revolution
• Settlement around river valleys
• Much higher population density, which brought:
– Diseases (esp. t...
Technologies
• Metallurgy: from copper to Bronze, which
created an elite warrior class in some societies
• Hydro technolog...
The concept of “Civilization”
• Civilization associated with settled agriculture,
esp. urban areas
• Associations are “goo...
Four major river valley civilizations
• Mesopotamia – Tigris & Euphrates rivers
• Egypt – Nile River
• India – Indus river...
Independent Invention v. Diffusion
• Technologies spread through trade, warfare,
migration, etc.
• Many are acquired “whol...
Mesopotamia vs. Egypt
EGYPT
-- Regular, predictable
flooding of Nile
-- Hot region, but not as
hot as Mesopotamia
-- Valle...
Influence of Geography
• Geographic circumstances heavily influenced
early river valley civilizations
• “Geographic Determ...
Mesopotamia v. Egypt – Religion
• Egypt
– Gods as benevolent and
predictable
– Rituals stressing
regularity and cyclical
n...
Mesopotamia v. Egypt -- PFOS
• Egypt
– Local kingdoms unified
in 3100 BCE by MENES
– Centralized government
– Few cities; ...
The Indus Valley
• Script not translated so little info
• Had bronze metallurgy
• Uniform weights & measures indicate cent...
The Yellow River
• Developed independently of other river-valley
civs; no evidence of trade
• Focus of early civ was contr...
Bronze-Age Empires
• Possession of bronze allowed military
innovators to conquer others
• Empire: area of centralized cont...
Bronze Age Empires
• Extensive trading networks allowed empires
to exist without river-valleys
• Marked social stratificat...
Fall of the Bronze Age
• Starting in 1200 BCE, most Bronze Age
civilizations fell
• Invasion by nomadic peoples (e.g. Arya...
Period 2
600 BCE – 600 CE
20% of Test
Rise of Classical Period Civilizations
• Nomadic invaders assimilated into local
culture, creating syncretic cultures
• In...
Political Forms of State
• An Empire or Civilization can have any of the
following political forms of state:
– Monarch: Ru...
Common themes of Classical Civilizations
• New patterns of social inequality
• Sophisticated Bureaucracy
• Formalized cult...
Case Studies - Greece
• Greek city-states not unified until threatened by
Persian Empire (dry-farmers)
• Some poliis (city...
Case Studies: Rome
• Developed around Tiber river; Latins enslaved
by Etruscans
• Ca. 500 BCE broke free, established Repu...
Case Study-Rome
• Traded with China along silk road, dominated
Mediterranean trade, traded with Coastal Africa
India throu...
Case Study: Rome
• Fall result of several interrelated factors:
– Decline of small farmers and subsequent
unemployment
– N...
Case Study: Gupta & Maurya India
• Limited political centralization
• High taxes – 25 – 50%
• Religions of state: Buddhism...
Case Study: China
• Kingdoms unified by Chin Shihuangdi
• Great Wall, coinage, weights & measures
• Development of Daoism ...
Case Study: China
• Confucian Exam System used for some
positions
• Synthesis of Confucianism, Taoism, and
Buddhism develo...
Case Study: Mayan Culture
• Had roots in older “hearth” of Olmec & Toltec
• De-centralized city states – “MAYAN” is a cult...
Fall of Classical Period Civs
• Commonalities:
– Nomadic invasions
– Loss of trade contacts
– Disease & natural disasters
...
Period 3
600-1450
20% of Test
• Major transitions
– Development & expansion of Islam
– Expanding zones of trade/expanding networks
– Spread of religions...
Development & expansion of Islam
• Impact on economy & trade
– As a business law
• Impact on culture
– Sharia & the five p...
Expanding zones of trade/expanding
networks
• Growth & expansion of major trade routes
– Impact of Islam
– Impact of techn...
Spread of religions
• Christianity
– Schism: East vs. West
• Buddhism
– Trade routes
– Order of diffusion
– syncretism
• I...
Mongol empire
• Political Impacts
– China
– Russia
– Middle East
• Economic impacts
– Trade
– Tax farming
• Military impac...
Chinese renaissance
• Sui-Tang-Song
• Commercial revolution
• Maritime trade
• Invention & innovation
• Urbanization
• Imp...
European middle ages & renaissance
• Political, Economic, and Social form of Middle
Ages
• Restructuring: Rise of cities, ...
Growth & role of cities
• Cities as centers of innovation
• Rise of city-states
• Urban vs. Rural
• Influence of cities on...
Rise of Islam
• Sassanid & Byzantine (Roman) Empires w/
state religion
• Arabs as intermediaries
• Trade caravans & oasis ...
Why were the Muslims successful?
• Byzantine & Sassanid empires weak
• Motivation of Muslim
• Brilliance of commanders
• C...
Dar-Al Islam
• Spread through conquest and trade
• Indian Ocean Network: provided common culture
and legal code, increasin...
Women’s rights under Islam and
elsewhere
• Women under Islam had more rights than others
(e.g. Divorce, property ownership...
Sunni vs. Shiite split
• Death of Caliph Uthman led to conflict over
succession
• Muslim community – Umma – wanted to vote...
Highlights of Caliphate
• Abbasid caliphate height of expansion and
sophistication
• Baghdad population over 1 million, ce...
Coda: The World by 1000CE
• Europe – decentralized, feudalistic, heavily
influenced by Christianity, economically cut
off;...
Coda: The World at 1000 CE
• Central Asia: Decentralized and tribal, but caravan
cities & trade entrepots along Silk Road
...
Coda: The World In 1000 CE
• The Americas
– Central America: Pre-Aztec Mayan Classical Age
– South American (Peru): Pre-In...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

1 before history

667 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
667
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1 before history

  1. 1. AP WORLD HISTORY Period 1, 2, & 3 8000BCE – 1400CE
  2. 2. Period 1 8000 BCE – 600 CE 5% of Test
  3. 3. The Paleolithic Age • Most of human pre-history Paleolithic (“old” stone age) – Small-scale groups – 30 w/ yearly 500 – Gathering as important (or more) than hunting – Human impact on environment minimal – Human migrations and settlement influenced by disease vectors – Warfare, but rarely – Women equal (or nearly so) sometimes deified – Religion animistic or totemistic – Egalitarianism
  4. 4. The Neolithic Transition • Melting of ice sheets (Holocene epoch) opened fields, reduced game • Haphazard then deliberate cultivation led to domestication of grains and legumes • Stationary food supply meant permanent settlements • Early Neolithic villages populations ~500-1000 • Large settlements not possible through “dry farming” • A few larger towns like Jericho and Catal Huyuk • Copper metallurgy, but most tools stone
  5. 5. Domestication • Areas of world with most domesticable plants and animals got jump-start • Animals, starting with dogs, domesticated to become docile, easily controlled, more nutritious, and unintelligent • Plants underwent “un-natural selection”; non- useful plants extinct while useful given advantage & took over ecosystems
  6. 6. The Urban Revolution • Settlement around river valleys • Much higher population density, which brought: – Diseases (esp. through livestock) – Social stratification (even slavery) – Increased warfare w/nomadic peoples – Polytheistic religions, sometimes anthropomorphic gods – Lower status of women – Lower nutrition, average height, and life expectancy – More complex forms of state – Direct manipulation of environment; intensive agriculture – Specialization, leading to technological advances
  7. 7. Technologies • Metallurgy: from copper to Bronze, which created an elite warrior class in some societies • Hydro technologies: dikes, dams, irrigation canals • Astronomical observation and recording • Writing – the beginning of history • The wheel, levers and pulleys, the chariot
  8. 8. The concept of “Civilization” • Civilization associated with settled agriculture, esp. urban areas • Associations are “good”, i.e. civilized vs. “barbarian” • Nomadic peoples don’t count • Arguments against: – Civilizations caused chronic problems -- Nomads played crucial roles
  9. 9. Four major river valley civilizations • Mesopotamia – Tigris & Euphrates rivers • Egypt – Nile River • India – Indus river • China – Yellow River Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India were influenced by each other; China was relatively independent
  10. 10. Independent Invention v. Diffusion • Technologies spread through trade, warfare, migration, etc. • Many are acquired “whole” from other civilizations; sometimes modified • Others are invented independently – sometimes resulting in better technology • Process of diffusion and syncretism essential to Afro-Eurasian patterns
  11. 11. Mesopotamia vs. Egypt EGYPT -- Regular, predictable flooding of Nile -- Hot region, but not as hot as Mesopotamia -- Valley surrounded by desert meant isolation (initially), low danger of attack MESOPOTAMIA -- Irregular, unpredictable flooding of Tigris and Euphrates -- Hot, dry region -- Open plains location meant frequent invasion
  12. 12. Influence of Geography • Geographic circumstances heavily influenced early river valley civilizations • “Geographic Determinism” • Influence is reciprocal: Cultures are influenced by nature but in turn influence nature
  13. 13. Mesopotamia v. Egypt – Religion • Egypt – Gods as benevolent and predictable – Rituals stressing regularity and cyclical nature of life – Afterlife orderly, predictable, pleasant • Mesopotamia – Gods as violent, unpredictable – Ritual stressing sacrifice to appease gods – Afterlife dark, dusty, and unpleasant
  14. 14. Mesopotamia v. Egypt -- PFOS • Egypt – Local kingdoms unified in 3100 BCE by MENES – Centralized government – Few cities; mostly ritual centers – Rulership shifted from upper to lower Egypt (Thebes & Memphis) – Law word of Pharaoh • Mesopotamia – City-states unified by Sargon of Akkad, but unstable unity – Imperial rule – Cities focus of civilization; large, urban populations – Rulership shifted from city-state to city-state through conquest – First written law
  15. 15. The Indus Valley • Script not translated so little info • Had bronze metallurgy • Uniform weights & measures indicate centralized government • Urban culture w/ infrastructure (e.g. waste disposal, public baths, etc.) • Cotton cultivation for textiles; legumes for food • Traded with Mesopotamia & Egypt • Yogic, pre-Aryan religion • Collapse result of catastrophic environmental events leading to SYSTEMS FAILURE
  16. 16. The Yellow River • Developed independently of other river-valley civs; no evidence of trade • Focus of early civ was control of Yellow River; earliest hero Duke of Zhou • Cast Bronze metallurgy • Cultivation of millet in north, rice in south • Decentralized politically; divine kingship w/ sacrifice • Writing system; oracle bones
  17. 17. Bronze-Age Empires • Possession of bronze allowed military innovators to conquer others • Empire: area of centralized control over diverse peoples • Land Empires, e.g. Assyrian • Maritime Empires, e.g. Phoenician • Developed new ways of ruling, etc. • Empires pass through stages
  18. 18. Bronze Age Empires • Extensive trading networks allowed empires to exist without river-valleys • Marked social stratification; possession of Bronze by elite • Chariot warfare and other innovations; siege engines
  19. 19. Fall of the Bronze Age • Starting in 1200 BCE, most Bronze Age civilizations fell • Invasion by nomadic peoples (e.g. Aryans from central Asia) • Invasion by diverse groups (e.g. “Sea Peoples”) • Systems failure followed defeats and in- fighting (e.g. Trojan War)
  20. 20. Period 2 600 BCE – 600 CE 20% of Test
  21. 21. Rise of Classical Period Civilizations • Nomadic invaders assimilated into local culture, creating syncretic cultures • Influence of river-valley cultures continued, e.g. Egyptian and Mycenaean on Greek, became “Cultural Hearths”
  22. 22. Political Forms of State • An Empire or Civilization can have any of the following political forms of state: – Monarch: Rule by one person (e.g. King) – Theocracy: Rule by priests – Oligarchy: Rule by a small group of elite – Aristocracy: Rule by a traditional elite class – Democracy: Rule by vote of citizens
  23. 23. Common themes of Classical Civilizations • New patterns of social inequality • Sophisticated Bureaucracy • Formalized cultural systems • Universal religions • A Lingua Franca • Internal and external trade • Infrastructure • Rigid gender roles • Iron metallurgy • Large populations
  24. 24. Case Studies - Greece • Greek city-states not unified until threatened by Persian Empire (dry-farmers) • Some poliis (city-states) democratic • Influenced by Mediterranean cultural hearth; “Greek” is cultural not political • Traded wine, olives, pottery in Mediterranean • Women had lower status; worst in Athens • Rationalism under Socrates, Plato, Aristotle • Architecture: Parthenon • Fall: Fighting between city-states made vulnerable to Macedonians (Phillip II & Alexander)
  25. 25. Case Studies: Rome • Developed around Tiber river; Latins enslaved by Etruscans • Ca. 500 BCE broke free, established Republic (democratic government) • Conquered Italy, then the Eastern & Western Mediterranean (conflict w/Carthage = Punic Wars) • Fought to expand empire into Gaul and beyond
  26. 26. Case Study-Rome • Traded with China along silk road, dominated Mediterranean trade, traded with Coastal Africa India through IO & Saharan networks • Developed written law code (12 tablets), concrete, the Roman Arch (improved), road system • Co-opted Greek culture; revered (& stole) Egyptian • C. 30 BCE – Civil conflict leads to EMPIRE • Empire lasted until c. 400 CE – moved to Byzantium
  27. 27. Case Study: Rome • Fall result of several interrelated factors: – Decline of small farmers and subsequent unemployment – Nomadic migration and invasions (German and Central Asian peoples) – Expense of maintaining extensive borders – Decadence of wealthy; loss of “civitas” – Disease and environmental problems
  28. 28. Case Study: Gupta & Maurya India • Limited political centralization • High taxes – 25 – 50% • Religions of state: Buddhism under Ashoka, Hinduism under later rulers • Status of women higher than Rome or China, but still not equal (e.g. Sati) • Theater-state and use of rituals extensive • Traded with Africa, Europe, Asia • Important innovations: 0, fractions, inoculation • Fall result of overspending on military
  29. 29. Case Study: China • Kingdoms unified by Chin Shihuangdi • Great Wall, coinage, weights & measures • Development of Daoism and Confucianism • Legalistic policies led to fall after death • Han Empire (200 BCE – 200 CE) – Lingua Franca Mandarin Chinese – Han ethnic group dominant over others – Constant threat from central asian nomads – Trade with Rome and India through Silk Route and IO Trade Network
  30. 30. Case Study: China • Confucian Exam System used for some positions • Synthesis of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism developed – “Han Synthesis” • Fall of Han due to several factors: – Invasion by nomadic peoples on horseback – Corruption & cabalism in government – Natural disasters, disease, drought – Infrastructural failure (esp. Yellow River)
  31. 31. Case Study: Mayan Culture • Had roots in older “hearth” of Olmec & Toltec • De-centralized city states – “MAYAN” is a culture like “GREEK” • Social stratification – urban elite • Trade limited & for light, high-value objects • Reverence of Jaguar • Primary crop: Corn but also beans • Conquest of Aztec (c. 1200 CE) resulted in Imperial Control • Systems failure for some states – environmentally unsound practices • Astronomical science, zero
  32. 32. Fall of Classical Period Civs • Commonalities: – Nomadic invasions – Loss of trade contacts – Disease & natural disasters – Loss of civic impulse & governmental corruption – Transition from centralized to decentralized (sometimes “feudalistic”) PFOS
  33. 33. Period 3 600-1450 20% of Test
  34. 34. • Major transitions – Development & expansion of Islam – Expanding zones of trade/expanding networks – Spread of religions – Mongol empire – Chinese renaissance – European middle ages & renaissance – Plague pandemics – Growth & role of cities
  35. 35. Development & expansion of Islam • Impact on economy & trade – As a business law • Impact on culture – Sharia & the five pillars – gender • Political structures – The Caliphate – Sultanates – Mali • Arts, sciences, technologies
  36. 36. Expanding zones of trade/expanding networks • Growth & expansion of major trade routes – Impact of Islam – Impact of technology • Camels • Dhows – Nature of trade • Indian Ocean basin • Trans-Saharan • Silk Road
  37. 37. Spread of religions • Christianity – Schism: East vs. West • Buddhism – Trade routes – Order of diffusion – syncretism • Islam – By conquest – By trade
  38. 38. Mongol empire • Political Impacts – China – Russia – Middle East • Economic impacts – Trade – Tax farming • Military impacts – Diffusion of military technologies • Social Impact – Spread of plague – China
  39. 39. Chinese renaissance • Sui-Tang-Song • Commercial revolution • Maritime trade • Invention & innovation • Urbanization • Impact on East Asia • Zheng He • Compared to European Renaissance
  40. 40. European middle ages & renaissance • Political, Economic, and Social form of Middle Ages • Restructuring: Rise of cities, national kingdoms, decline of church power • Impact of Crusades on trade • Rise of city-states • Impact of plague & commerce on serfdom • Reformation
  41. 41. Growth & role of cities • Cities as centers of innovation • Rise of city-states • Urban vs. Rural • Influence of cities on politics • Roles of cities – As trade centers – As religious centers – As political capitals
  42. 42. Rise of Islam • Sassanid & Byzantine (Roman) Empires w/ state religion • Arabs as intermediaries • Trade caravans & oasis cities • Prior exposure to Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism (of Persia) • Oral culture • Clans & Tribes – constant warfare
  43. 43. Why were the Muslims successful? • Byzantine & Sassanid empires weak • Motivation of Muslim • Brilliance of commanders • Combination: multiple causation
  44. 44. Dar-Al Islam • Spread through conquest and trade • Indian Ocean Network: provided common culture and legal code, increasing trade; spread into Fuxian province of China • Silk Road: Influenced central Asians, did not get into China (Battle of Talus River) • Trans-Saharan network: Spread across e-w axis, first Muslim influenced kingdom Ghana (800 CE) • Spread of Islamic architecture, law (Sharia), and education (madrasas)
  45. 45. Women’s rights under Islam and elsewhere • Women under Islam had more rights than others (e.g. Divorce, property ownership) • Adopted head covering like European and Persians • Muhammad’s first wife older (causation?) • Women participated in Muslim civil war • Europe, East Asia – more repressive: Christianity & Confucianism • Americas – More roles and rights for women
  46. 46. Sunni vs. Shiite split • Death of Caliph Uthman led to conflict over succession • Muslim community – Umma – wanted to vote • Shia wanted bloodline of Muhammad – Ali • Civil war followed – schism • Today: Iran is Shia, most of rest mixed or Sunni
  47. 47. Highlights of Caliphate • Abbasid caliphate height of expansion and sophistication • Baghdad population over 1 million, center of artistic and intellectual activity • Water sources brought to most areas • Eventually hired Turkish soldiers (Mamluks) to fight for them – later taken over • Ended with execution of last Caliph by Mongols (except in Egypt) • Conflict with Western Europe over access to holy sites, trade – The Crusades
  48. 48. Coda: The World by 1000CE • Europe – decentralized, feudalistic, heavily influenced by Christianity, economically cut off; Iberia ruled by Moors (Muslims) • East Asia – (China) centralized c. 600 CE under Sui-Tang-Song; active trade, initial influence of Buddhism followed by persecution; influence of China on Korea, Vietnam, and Japan great
  49. 49. Coda: The World at 1000 CE • Central Asia: Decentralized and tribal, but caravan cities & trade entrepots along Silk Road • North Africa: Islam spreading, Ummayad Caliphate in N. Africa & Iberia; Trans-Saharan trade healthy; Muslim states (e.g. Mali) • Sub-Saharan Africa: trading on Swahili coast (east); Great Zimbabwe in-land; much untouched by outsiders b/c geographic & micro-parasitic obstacles; Bantu Migration provided cultural continuity
  50. 50. Coda: The World In 1000 CE • The Americas – Central America: Pre-Aztec Mayan Classical Age – South American (Peru): Pre-Incan Moche culture – North America: Hopewell & Anasazi cultures; decentralized & tribal otherwise South Asia (India) --Delhi Sultanate in N. India, Rajputs in Himalayan foothills -- Decentralized otherwise, with trade zones on coasts and Gujarat

×