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Dar Training

  1. 1. Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Process Nova Technologies Systems and Software Engineering Processes
  2. 2. The DAR Process <ul><li>Established by the Nova Technologies Systems and Software Engineering Working Group (SSEPWG) </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible solutions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Entry & Exit Criteria <ul><li>A project needs to establish and document in its project plan guidelines to determine which events or items should be subjected to a formal evaluation process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DAR is not suitable for every decision, but is important for those with significant impact on key success factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical guidelines for when a formal evaluation is needed include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a change in work products under CM, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schedule delays over a certain percentage or specific amount of time, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to achieve project objectives, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost increase over a certain percentage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make/buy/reuse decision, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>significant architectural or requirements changes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selection of third party solution providers, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selection of organizational tools. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Entry Criteria <ul><li>Entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans exist for establishing this process, assigning responsibilities, establishing monitoring procedures, and providing for improvement of this process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate resources are committed to DAR activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel are trained on the DAR activities and how to use this process </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Input <ul><li>A critical or high-risk event or item that requires a structured decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need to select a image generator (IG) for a new simulator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 3 different architectures which would satisfy the statement of work – which one should we use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we need to develop software for some functionality, buy a COTS product, or find something Open Source (reuse)? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Outputs <ul><li>Selective alternative for event or item </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The ACME 9900 IG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: IGs evaluated, criteria used, weights assigned to criteria, selection scores. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DAR notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Any supporting documentation (meeting minutes, vendor brochures, pricing data, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exit Critieria <ul><li>Evaluation report is complete and distributed to appropriate stakeholders. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Roles & Responsibilities <ul><li>A number of roles are required to support the DAR process. These may be filled by different people, a single individual may fill multiple roles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Manager (PM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance (QA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration Management (CM) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Program Manager (PM) <ul><li>Program Manager (PM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person with overall responsibility for the successful execution of the program/project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines that a DAR evaluation is needed, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selects decision team and its lead, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns resources to the team, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives the evaluation report, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approves resulting decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Team Lead <ul><li>Team Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by the program manager to head up a DAR evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures all team members are trained in the DAR process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads team in determining evaluation criteria, weighting, and scoring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads decision-making discussions, leading to selection of a recommended alternative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares evaluation report. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Team Members <ul><li>Team Members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform research for alternatives, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate alternatives, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present findings at team meetings for discussion. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. QA & CM <ul><li>Quality Assurance (QA): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures the team is using a formal evaluation process for making critical decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configuration Management (CM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides numbering guidance for documents produced in this process, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enters DAR work products into CM system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures program data plan is followed. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Process Tasks & Activities <ul><li>The DAR process tasks can be combined or expanded as needed as long as the intent of the process is maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for removal of any item must be documented and approved by the appropriate party. </li></ul><ul><li>More detail may always be added, such as “how to” information, if desired. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Process Workflow
  15. 15. Plan the DAR <ul><li>The PM assigns a DAR team lead. </li></ul><ul><li>The PM and DAR team lead assign the team members. </li></ul><ul><li>The team lead ensures all team members are trained in the DAR process. </li></ul><ul><li>The PM or his designee creates a working directory to hold the DAR artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>The PM or his designee creates an action item in the Project Notebook to track DAR status. </li></ul><ul><li>The PM determines the approval signatures required for this DAR. </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team plans the effort required to perform the DAR and gets PM approval for expending the needed resources. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Identify Stakeholders <ul><li>The DAR team lead identifies stakeholders for this DAR activity. Stakeholders may include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who provide the alternatives, risks, and historical data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DAR team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who will implement the decision recommended by the DAR team. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Obtain Stakeholder Input <ul><li>The DAR team obtains input from stakeholders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A list of requirements applicable to the DAR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A list of potential alternative approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested evaluation criteria and relative weighting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key risks. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Establish Evaluation Criteria <ul><li>The DAR team determines the evaluation criteria and relative weighting after considering input from all stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team reviews the evaluation criteria with the stakeholders before finalizing the criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team documents the rationale for choosing the selected evaluation criteria. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Identify Alternative Solutions <ul><li>The DAR team identifies the alternative solutions to be evaluated after considering stakeholder input. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Select Evaluation Methods <ul><li>The DAR team determines the ranking and scoring method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested ranking and scoring methods are found in the DAR Tools document. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DAR team must agree on a scoring method, the scoring range, and have a common understanding of what the scores represent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The DAR team documents the selected approach. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Evaluate Alternatives <ul><li>Acquire data needed to evaluate the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>For each alternative, the DAR team assigns a score to each decision criteria, employing the ranking and scoring method previously selected. </li></ul><ul><li>The total weighted score for each alternative is determined </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team may consider new alternatives, criteria, or methods if the proposed alternatives do not test well. </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team documents the evaluation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Evaluation Example <ul><li>You can use tools to help make an objective evaluation of options. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A simple spreadsheet to weight various evaluation criteria and obtain a ranking of options. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Select Solutions <ul><li>The DAR team makes a decision and reviews it with the stakeholders making changes if necessary. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The DAR team documents the stakeholder review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DAR team documents the final decision and rationale for the selection. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Perform Post-Mortem <ul><li>The DAR team lead obtains and records approval signatures. </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team captures lessons learned in the DAR notes. </li></ul><ul><li>The DAR team captures and archives documents per the program Data Management Plan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The completed DAR scoring and analysis worksheets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DAR evaluation report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAR notes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CM is notified that the DAR is complete and that the DAR artifacts can be archived to the program data management repository. </li></ul><ul><li>The PM documents the effort expended vs. planned. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Metrics and Artifacts <ul><li>The DAR process should capture metrics and artifacts to document the DAR process and support process improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual staff hours expended versus planned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAR evaluation report with scoring and analysis worksheets that document the process and recommended solution, along with approval signatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAR notes, with lessons learned. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. References and Additional Resources <ul><li>Nova Technologies SSEPWG Decision Analysis and Resolution Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DAR-Process_Ver_1_0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>my.novatechnologies.com/xxxxx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dare To Use DAR… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whitepaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>my.novatechnologies.com/xxxx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools for Decision Analysis and Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPIN Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>my.novatechnologies.com/xxx </li></ul></ul>