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Psychology In Leadership 3


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Psychology In Leadership 3

  1. 1. Psychology in leadership
  2. 2. Psychological Factors in Sport Activity – Pair activity Write why you think it is important to understand psychological factors when leading a sporting activity or being a sports leader. Be prepared to present your findings to the class
  3. 3. Social loafing
  4. 4. What is meant by the term ‘social loafing’?
  5. 5. If I was pulling a rope?
  6. 6. Case of the rope pulling contest • Rope Pulling: – As you add more and more people to a group pulling on a rope, the total force exerted by the group rose, but the average force exerted by each group member declined. (Ringlemann)
  7. 7. Social Loafing BASIC PRINCIPLE The larger the number of individuals whose work is combined on a group task, the smaller is each individual’s contribution.
  8. 8. Social Loafing • Ringelmann 70 Expected performance (1913, 1927) observed that men pulling on a 60 Force per person (kg) rope attached to a 50 dynamometer exerted 40 less force in proportion 30 to the number of people Actual performance 20 in the group: 10 The Ringelmann effect 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Group size (persons)
  9. 9. Development of Team Cohesion Discussion Activity How could we ensure that we reduce the Riglemann effect as much as possible during the coaching of our sporting activities.
  10. 10. Team dynamics and cohesion
  11. 11. Cohesion Flipchart – group activity You have been named head coach a sports team in the college (your choice) What measures are you going to put in place to encourage cohesion. Present your findings to the class
  12. 12. Team Dynamics • A group is two or more people • A group has a collective identity and a sense of shared purpose, mutual awareness • Successful groups has a strong collective identify. • They socialise, share ambitions and goals • They have good communication, value everyone's input
  13. 13. Social or task
  14. 14. Cohesion Pair activity What do you think influences Group cohesion? In pairs record your answers and be prepared to answer questions
  15. 15. Group development • Stability - Cohesion develops the longer a group is together with the same members • Similarity- Cohesion develops when the more similar the group members are in terms of age, sex, skills and attitudes • Size - Cohesion develops more quickly in small groups • Support - Cohesive teams tend to have managers and coaches who provide support to team members and encourage them to support one another • Satisfaction- Cohesion is associated with the extent to which team members are pleased with each others performance, behaviour and conformity to the norms of the team
  16. 16. Group formation
  17. 17. Talent or blend • Michael Jordan – “Talent wins games, but teamwork championships” • Talented teams – playing poorly • Less talented teams - succeed
  18. 18. Can you name any successful teams?
  19. 19. What made these teams successful? Open your envelops Divide the contents up between the group Join the pieces together to compete the text
  20. 20. In completing the task, did you? • A common vision • Clear and definite goals which go hand-in-hand with this vision • Members who share their understanding of strategy and tactics • Great inner discipline (meaning they act professionally together) • Players with characteristics which complement each other • A good division of roles among the players, with all members treated equally • Players who put the common good before their own interests • Players who take responsibility for the whole team, with everyone accepting mistakes as long as people do their best.
  21. 21. What's the different between a group and a team?
  22. 22. Team or Group? • Complex definitions • badminton class, karate club or exercise class as a “group”? • groups of people who play soccer or volleyball as a “team”? • A collection of people are not necessarily a group and a group is not necessarily a team
  23. 23. How a group becomes a team • Evolutionary process • Teams are constantly changing and developing • Groups go through four stages of development (Tuckman, 1965) • Vary in duration and sequence for different groups
  24. 24. Cohesion Card sorting activity – Groupwork Look at a Tuckman’s stages of group development and sort out the order in which they should be ranked. Be prepared to justify your choice
  25. 25. Four stages of development Forming Storming Norming Performing
  26. 26. Forming • 1st stage • Where members become familiar with other members • Team engages in social comparisons, assessing each others strengths and weaknesses • Individuals also try to determine if they belong to the group
  27. 27. Storming • 2nd stage • Characterised by: – resistance to the leader, – resistance to control by the group – interpersonal conflict • Occurs when there is a established • Infighting can occur • Relieving stress will help
  28. 28. Norming • 3rd stages • Conflicts are resolved and a sense of unity forms • Athletes work together to reach a common goal • Group cohesion occurs at this stage
  29. 29. Cohesion • “the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group” (Festinger et al, 1950) • Many definitions • Cohesion comprises of: – Task cohesion – Social cohesion • Explains how teams overcome conflict to succeed (Carron, 1992)
  30. 30. Performing • Final stage • Channel energies for team success • The team focuses on problem solving • Roles are well defined • Team members respect and encourage accomplishments