“ Research is commonly defined as a systematicapproach to provide answers to questions .”(Tuckman, 1978: 1 )There are 3 basic components in a research : A systematic approachAnswersQuestions
“ Research is a process which involves :a)Defining a problem,b)Stating an object,c)Formulating an hypothesis.(Nunan, 1992:2)
“Research is the systematic and objective analysis andrecording of controlled observations that may led to thedevelopment of generalizations, principles, or theories,resulting in prediction, and ultimate control of manyevents that may be consequences or causes of specificactivities “(Best, 1977:8)
From the two research definitions above, we canconclude that:PROBLEM SOLLUTIONRESEARCH
There are 10 steps in the research process :1. Identifying a problem2. Construction a hypothesis3. Reviewing the literature4. Etc.
There are some characteristics of a problem thatshould be taken into consideration in choosing themost suitable one.1.It should ask about a relationship between two ormore variable.
2. It should be stated clearly and unambiguously,usually in questions form.3. It should be testable by empirical methods4. It should not represent a moral or ethical position
A hypothesis, a suggested answer to the problem has thefollowing characteristics :a.It should hypothesize upon a relationship between two ormore variables.b.It should be stated clearly and unambiguously in the form of adeclarative sentence.c.It should be testable; that is , it should be possible to restate itin an operational form that can then be evaluated based on data.
Question : Is there a drinking problem amongstudents?Thesis : There is a drinking problem amongstudents at this college.The thesis is a statement of belief.
The next step is to sharpen the thesis.The refining of the thesis might go like this :Thesis 1: There are students on this campuswho have drinking problemThesis 2: The students who drink excessively haveproblemThesis 3: Students who drink excessively have problemwith their school work.
After you have sharpened your thesis, the next step is todevelop testable hypothesis.The sharper the hypothesis, the neater the information.
A hypothesis is a tentative proposition about a relationshipbetween two or more phenomena, a proposition that can beempirically tested to be either true or false.Ex : HypothesisExcesssive drinkers will have lower grade point averagethan will moderate drinkers or teetolalers among the student.
If A is valid, B follows ...If you hit a child with a cain, he/she will cry.If A is changed, then there is also a change in BIf you give a child chocolates, he/she will happy.
Deduction is a process that goes from the general to thespecific.E.g: If you don’t have a ticket,you cannot rida the trainYou don’t have a ticket so you cannot ride the train.
Induction is the process that begins with data andobservation (empirical events ) and proceeds towardshypotheses and theories.e.g : My apple is redYour apple is redAll apple is red
An essential step in any research project is theliterature review.The function is to provide background information onthe research question and to identify what others havesaid and / or discovered about the question.
Function of reviewing literature:1.Reviewing history of the problem2.Helping to choose the research design3.Penetrate the base teory that relevant with rtheproblem.
4. Reviewing lack and overage result of the result of theresearch.5. Avoid the duplication research6. Support statement of the problem
Thank you for youattention ...See you...bye...bye....!!!