MemberNiam Pramestasari 10420004Ulul Ma’rifah 10420010Vera Ayudya K 10420014Wahyuningtyas S H 10420044Priyanka Eka W 10420045
The experimental method in involves manipulating onevariable to determine if changes in one variable causechanges in another variable. This method relies oncontrolled methods, random assignment and themanipulation of variables to test a hypothesis.
ParticipantsVariablesInstrument and Materials
A participant is a living person who takes part in aresearch study.The participants might be selected by random selectionor random sampling.
Generally speaking, experiments are carried out inorder to explore the strength of relationships betweenvariables. The label given to the variable that theexperimenter expects to influence the other is calledthe independent variable. The variable upon which theindependent variable is acting is called the dependentvariable- in our case, the test scores. Thus, clearlyidentify the independent variable and the dependentvariable in experiment. The dependent variable is theresponse or the criterion variable that is presumed tobe caused by or influenced by the independenttreatment conditions.
Instrument is tools researchers use to collect data forresearch studies( alternatively called “test”)Example :handouts, lessons, etc.
What is sampling?A shortcut method for investigating a wholepopulationData is gathered on a small part of the whole parentpopulation or sampling frame, and used to informwhat the whole picture is like
In reality there is simply not enough; time, energy,money, labour/man power, equipment, access tosuitable sites to measure every single item or sitewithin the parent population or whole samplingframe.Therefore an appropriate sampling strategy is adoptedto obtain a representative, and statistically validsample of the whole.
Determine research purposeDetermine research populationDetermine what data is neededDetermine sampling techniqueDetermine sample sizeDetermine what sample unit is neededChoosing sample
Convenience samples (ease of access)sample is selected from elements of a populationthat are easily accessibleSnowball sampling (friend of friend….etc.)Purposive sampling (judgemental)You chose who you think should be in thestudy Quota sampleSelect individuals as they come to fill a quota bycharacteristics proportional to populations
Random samplingEach subject has a known probability of being selectedAllows application of statistical sampling theory toresults to:GeneraliseTest hypotheses Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Multi-stage sampling Cluster sampling
Sampling fractionRatio between sample size and population sizeSystematic sampling
It need to be identified.Identify the type of experimental design in theproposed study.The type available in experiments are:1. Pre- experimental design2. Quasi- experiments3. True- experiments4. A single subject design
Kind of pre- experimental design One- short case studyX O The one- group pre-test post- test designO1 X O2 Static group comparison or Post- test only with Non- equivalent GroupX OO Alternative Treatment Post- test only With Nonequivalent GroupdesignX1 OX2 O
Nonequivalent (pretest and posttest)O X OO OSingle- Group Interrupted Time- Series DesignO O O O X O O O OControl- Group Interrupted Time- Series DesignO O O O X O O O OO O O O X O O O O
Pretest- Posttest Control DesignR O X OR O OPosttest- Only Control- Group DesignR X OR OSolomon Four- Group DesignR O X OR O OR X OR O
These statistics are means, standard deviations, andrangerTell the reader about type of statistical analysis that willbe used during the experiment.Report the descriptive statistics calculated forobservation and measures at the pretest or postteststage of experimental design.