Refl

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Refl

  1. 1. MemberNiam Pramestasari 10420004Ulul Ma’rifah 10420010Vera Ayudya K 10420014Wahyuningtyas S H 10420044Priyanka Eka W 10420045
  2. 2. The experimental method in involves manipulating onevariable to determine if changes in one variable causechanges in another variable. This method relies oncontrolled methods, random assignment and themanipulation of variables to test a hypothesis.
  3. 3. ParticipantsVariablesInstrument and Materials
  4. 4. A participant is a living person who takes part in aresearch study.The participants might be selected by random selectionor random sampling.
  5. 5. Generally speaking, experiments are carried out inorder to explore the strength of relationships betweenvariables. The label given to the variable that theexperimenter expects to influence the other is calledthe independent variable. The variable upon which theindependent variable is acting is called the dependentvariable- in our case, the test scores. Thus, clearlyidentify the independent variable and the dependentvariable in experiment. The dependent variable is theresponse or the criterion variable that is presumed tobe caused by or influenced by the independenttreatment conditions.
  6. 6. Instrument is tools researchers use to collect data forresearch studies( alternatively called “test”)Example :handouts, lessons, etc.
  7. 7. What is sampling?A shortcut method for investigating a wholepopulationData is gathered on a small part of the whole parentpopulation or sampling frame, and used to informwhat the whole picture is like
  8. 8. In reality there is simply not enough; time, energy,money, labour/man power, equipment, access tosuitable sites to measure every single item or sitewithin the parent population or whole samplingframe.Therefore an appropriate sampling strategy is adoptedto obtain a representative, and statistically validsample of the whole.
  9. 9. Determine research purposeDetermine research populationDetermine what data is neededDetermine sampling techniqueDetermine sample sizeDetermine what sample unit is neededChoosing sample
  10. 10. Non-probability samplesProbability samples
  11. 11. Convenience samples (ease of access)sample is selected from elements of a populationthat are easily accessibleSnowball sampling (friend of friend….etc.)Purposive sampling (judgemental)You chose who you think should be in thestudy Quota sampleSelect individuals as they come to fill a quota bycharacteristics proportional to populations
  12. 12. Random samplingEach subject has a known probability of being selectedAllows application of statistical sampling theory toresults to:GeneraliseTest hypotheses Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Multi-stage sampling Cluster sampling
  13. 13. Sampling fractionRatio between sample size and population sizeSystematic sampling
  14. 14. Systematic sampling
  15. 15. Cluster: a group of sampling units close to eachother i.e. crowding together in the same area orneighborhood
  16. 16. Section 4Section 5Section 3Section 2Section 1
  17. 17. It need to be identified.Identify the type of experimental design in theproposed study.The type available in experiments are:1. Pre- experimental design2. Quasi- experiments3. True- experiments4. A single subject design
  18. 18. Kind of pre- experimental design One- short case studyX O The one- group pre-test post- test designO1 X O2 Static group comparison or Post- test only with Non- equivalent GroupX OO Alternative Treatment Post- test only With Nonequivalent GroupdesignX1 OX2 O
  19. 19.  Nonequivalent (pretest and posttest)O X OO OSingle- Group Interrupted Time- Series DesignO O O O X O O O OControl- Group Interrupted Time- Series DesignO O O O X O O O OO O O O X O O O O
  20. 20. Pretest- Posttest Control DesignR O X OR O OPosttest- Only Control- Group DesignR X OR OSolomon Four- Group DesignR O X OR O OR X OR O
  21. 21. These statistics are means, standard deviations, andrangerTell the reader about type of statistical analysis that willbe used during the experiment.Report the descriptive statistics calculated forobservation and measures at the pretest or postteststage of experimental design.

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