TESTMembers of group :1. Muthia Maulida (10420013)2. Winarni (10420040)3. Fitria Fauzia Nur Chasanah (10420049)4. Siti Mukaromah (10420086)5. Devi Ayu Puspita Rini (10420303)
Achievement test attempt to measure whatan individual has learned-his or her presentlevel of performance.Achievement Test
1. Identify the puspose of the test2. Identify the best specification3. Select the contents of the test4. Consider the form of the test5. Write the test item6. Consider the layout of the test7. Consider the timing of the test8. Plan the scoring of the testIn planning a test, the researcher can proceed thefollowing :
1.To diagnose a student’s strength, weaknessand difficulties2.To measure achievement3.To measure aptitude and potential4.To identify readiness for a program1. Identify the Purpose of the Test
2. IDENTIFY THE TEST SPECIFICATIONThe test specification includes :1. which program objectives and student learningoutcomes will be addressed.2. which content areas will be addressed.3. the relative weightings, balance and coverage ofitems.4. the total number of items in the test.5. the number of questions required to address aparticular element of a program or learningoutcome6. the exact item in the test.
3. SELECT THE CONTENTS OF THE TESTGronlund and Linn (1990), suggest that an item analysiswill need to consider :1. The suitability of the format of each item for the(learning) objective (appropriateness)2. The ability of each item to enable students todemonstrate their performance of the (learning)objective (relevance)3. Clarity of the task for each item4. The straight forwardness of the task5. The independence of each item (i.e. where theinfluence of other items of the testis minimal andwhere successful completion of one another)6. The adequacy of coverage of each (learning) objectiveby the items of the test.
4. CONSIDER THE FORM OF THE TESTThe researcher will need to consider whether thetest will be undertaken individually, or in a group,and what form it will take.Oral test, for example, can be conducted if theresearcher feels that reading and writing willobstruct the true purpose of the test.
5. Write the Test ItemsKINDS OF TEST:1. MULTIPLE CHOICE2. TRUE-FALSE ITEMS3. MATCHING4. CLOZE TEST/ COMPLETION TEST5. SPOKEN TEST
A. Constructing Multiple ChoiceItems1. Design each item to measure a specific objective• Example of Multiple choice item, revised:Voice: Where did George go after the party last night?S reads: a. Yes, he didb. Because he was tiredc. To Elaine’s place for another partyd. Around eleven o’clock
• Example of Indirect question:Excuse me, do you know…..?a. where is the post officeb. where the post office isc. where post office is
2. State both stem and options as simply anddirectly as possible.We are sometimes tempted to make multiplechoice items too wordy. A good rule is to getdirectly to the point. Here is an example ofMultiple choice cloze item, flawed:• My eyesight has really been deteriorating lately. Iwonder if I need glasses. I think I’d better go tothe…..to have my eyes checked.a. pediatricianb. dermatologistc. Optometrist
• Multiple choice, flawed:We went to visit the temples,…..fascinating.a. which were beautifulb. which were especiallyc. which were holy
3. Make certain that intended answer is clearly the onlycorrect one.Multiple choice item, flawed:Voice: Where did George go after the party last night?S reads: a. Yes, he didb. Because he was tiredc. To Elaine’s place for another partyd. He went home around eleveno’clock
4. Use item indices to accept, discard,or revise items1. Item facility (level of difficulty)2. Item discrimination (discriminatingpower)3. Distractor efficiency
Item facility (IF)• Is the extent to which an item is easyor difficult for the proposed groupof test-takers.• IF shows how easy or difficult theparticular item that’s proved in thetest.
FORMULA• P = BJsP: level of difficultyB: the number of the students answering theitem correctlyJs: the number of all of the students taking thetest
The classification of the level ofdifficulty:1. P: I.00 – 0.70 = EASY2. P: 0.70 – 0.30 = ENOUGH3. P: 0.30 – 0. 00 = DIFFICULT
Item Discrimination• Item discrimination is the extent towhich an item differentiates betweenhigh- and low-ability test-takers.• It measures how well the test itemsare arranged to identify thedifferences in the studentscompetence.
Formula• D = BA BBJA JBD : Discriminating powerBA : the number of good students who cananswer correctlyJA : the number of all of the good studentsBB : the number of low students who cananswer correctlyJB : the number of all of the low students
The classification of discriminating power1. D : 0.00 – 0. 20 = POOR2. D : 0.20 – 0.40 = SATISFIED/ENOUGH3. D : 0.40 – 0.70 = GOOD4. D : 0.70 – 1.00 = EXCELLENT
DISTRACTOR EFFICIENCY• Distractor efficiency is one more importantmeasure of multiple choice item’s value in atest• The efficiency of distractors is the extent towhicha. The distractors “lure” a sufficient number oftest-takers especially lower-ability onesb. Those responses are somewhat evenlydistributed across al distractors.
Example1. The breaks need…A. to be adjust d. adjustingB. To adjustment e. adjustedC. To adjustA B C D EHigh-ability Ss (12) 0 0 0 9 3Low-ability Ss (12) 3 0 5 4 0
B. TRUE-FALSE ITEMSThe true-false item typically present a declarativestatement that the students must mark as eithertrue or false. Instructors generally use true-falseitems to measure the recall of factual knowledgesuch as name, events, dates, definitions, etc. Butthis format has the potential to measure higherlevels of cognitive ability, such as comprehension ofsignificant ideas and their application in solvingproblems.
EXAMPLE• T F. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solarsystem.• T F. If Triangle ABC is isosceles and angle Ameasures 100 degrees, then angle B is 100degrees.
Strengths of True -False Items1. They are relatively easy to write and can beanswered quickly by students. Students cananswer 50 true- false items in the time. It takes toanswer 30 multiple-choice items.2. They provide the widest sampling of content perunit of time.
Limitations of True -False Items1. The problem of guessing is the major weakness.Students have a fifty-percent chance of correctlyanswering an item without any knowledge of thecontent.2. Items are often ambiguous because of thedifficulty of writing statements that areunequivocally true or false.
Variations of the T-F Format1. Changing false statements to make them true:The student indicates whether the statement istrue or false; if false, he/she must change anunderlined word to make the statement true.T F electrons . Subatomic particles of negativelycharged electricity are called protons.T F _______ . The green coloring matter in plantsis called chlorophyll.
Variations of the T-F Format2. Items measuring ability to recognize cause-and-effect:The item has two parts, both of which are true; thestudent must decide if the second part explainswhy the first part is true.Yes No. Leaves are essential because they shadethe tree trunk.Yes No. Iron rusts because oxidation occurs.
A matching exercise typically consists of a listof questions or problems to be answered alongwith a list of responses. The examinee isrequired to make an association between eachquestion and a response.c. MATCHING
EXAMPLEI II1. a substance of low solubility A. distillation2. two liquids that do not dissolve in each other B. miscible3. a substance that does the dissolving C. immiscible4. a method of purifying a substance D. precipitate5. the substance being dissolved E. solubleF. soluteG. solvent
D.COMPLETION ITEMS/ CLOZE TESTThe completion format requires the student toanswer a question or to finish an incompletestatement by filling in a blank with the correct wordor phrase. The advantages of completion items are:(1) they provide a wide sampling of content.(2) they minimize guessing compared with multiple-choice and true-false.
COMPLETION ITEMS/ CLOZE TESTThe limitations are :1. rarely can be written to measure more than simplerecall of information2. more time-consuming to score than otherobjective types3. are difficult to write so there is only one correctanswer and no irrelevant clues.
E. Spoken Testo Spoken Test is a test which tests the way you speak.o Whether:- Your pronunciation- Your tone- Hem and haw (hesitation)- Fluency- Vocabulary (wide range or narrow)- Creative thinking- Comprehensibility, etc.o Generally it tests anything related to speaking
6. Consider The Layout• The Clarity of the Instruction: what to do how long to take how many items to attempt what kind of response is required how and where to enter the response
Example:The test consists of 25 questions. Readthe questions carefully and choose thecorrect answer by crossing (x) a, b, c, or d!50 minutes are given to complete thistest.
• The Location and Sequence of ItemsThe progression from the easy to the moredifficult items of the test• The Visual Layout of the PageMinimize the unnecessary visual material orwords
7. Consider the Timing of the Test• The timing refers to two areas:1. When the test will take place2. The time allowances to be given to the test andits component items
8. Plan the Scoring of the Test• Figure out the objectives and determining theweight of each item.It is important to ensure that easier parts of thetest attract few marks than more difficult parts ofit.