Sunflower cultivation


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Sunflower cultivation

  1. 1. Sunflower cultivation Prince Verma
  2. 2. Sunflower Scientific Name : Helianthus annus Family : Asteraceae Composition of Sunflower Seed Constituent Hull 21- 27 Oil 48-53 Protein 14-19 Soluble Sugar 7 -9 Crude Fiber 16-27 Ash 12/19/2013 Composition ( %) 2-3 2
  3. 3. Area of Cultivation Zone States North Punjab, Haryana Western Gujarat Southern Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu & Karnataka Central Maharashtra * Yellow coloured area on map shows sunflower cultivation in India 12/19/2013 3
  4. 4. Focus Area State :Gujarat District : Kachchh Taluka : Abdhasa Sr. No Expected acerage 1 Lala 1000 2 Prajau 1000 3 Gadhvada 500 4 Khirsara 700 5 Dumra 500 6 Kothara 1000 Total acerage 12/19/2013 Name of the villages 4700 4
  5. 5. Activities For Campaigning Before Sowing • Farmers Meeting • Jeep Campaigning • Road Show • Local news paper advertise • Product demonstration • Pictorial difference between seed verities • Some gift Boucher scheme 12/19/2013 During Crop Period • Educate the farmers with POPs • Farmers meeting at 15 days interval • Farmers training related to inputs for that area • ICM Training • Product demonstration • Frequent visit of FO • Training for harvest & marketing 5
  6. 6. Campaign Calendar Sr.No Activities 1 Farmers Meeting 2 Jeep Campaigning 3 Local news paper advertise 4 Product demonstration 5 Pictorial difference between seed verities 6 Some gift Boucher scheme 7 Other activities 8 Activities during crop period 9 Activities during crop period 12/19/2013 Date Person responsible 6
  7. 7. Seed Variety • • PAC 361 : Late sowing, Duration : > 105 days Syngenta 275 12/19/2013 Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 7
  8. 8. Sunflower Growth cycle The first few leaves are opposite each other. As more leaves develop, the leaves are arranged in an alternating pattern up the stem Emergence of 2 to 3 leaves per week. Alternate leaf arrangement after initially starting as an opposite arrangement. Germination & Emergence Bud formation Seed coat & Hypocotyl arche Sunflower Head Development initiation 12/19/2013 8
  9. 9. Agronomic Practices Climatic Condition : Require hot and humid weather with the relative humidity of 50 – 85%.Sunflower can be grown in dry areas too. Soil Type Sunflower can be grown in sandy loams, black soils and alluvial. pH range : 5.7 – 8 Sunflower performs well in well drained, fertile soils with good moisture holding capacity Land Preparation Deep ploughing up to 12’’ – 18’’ followed by 2-3 harrowing & planking, collect the stubbles of previous crop and prepare clean seedbed. Mixed 3-4 tonn FYM/acre in to the soil at the time of last harrowing. Crop Rotation 2 or 3 seasons/years crop rotation with traditional crops (cereals/pulses/millets) will improve soil fertility. Legume or groundnut crops are the best for rotation. Sunflower should not be followed after mustard, beans, peas (as they act as hosts for diseases) 12/19/2013 9
  10. 10. Sowing Sowing Time Early sowing : Mid Dec- Mid Jan Late Sowing : Jan Last week to Feb Last week Sowing Distance : Spacing 60 cm x 30 cm Method of Sowing : Dibbling method with furrow sowing Seed Rate : 2-3 Kg /acre Seed Treatment : Seeds should be treated with captan or ceresan @ 3 g/kg seed under dry land conditions Thinning : Remove unhealthy & and vigorous seedling in each hole on 10th day of sowing. Keep healthy one. Fertilizer Management : 12/19/2013 10
  11. 11. Fertilizer & Irrigation Management •FYM or Compost 3-4 ton/acre prior to sowing •Basal dose kg/acre- DAP – 75 + MOP-25 •Top dressing kg/acre or SSP-200 + MOP-25 + Urea 20 kg 1st Top Dressing: Urea-40 + MOP-25 (25 DAS) ; 2nd Top Dressing: Urea-40 (40 DAS). (Follow need based application of Sulphur and Boron which are vital for seed wt. and flower opening) Critical stage for Irrigation Button stage : 35 to 50 DAS Flowering : 55 to 65 DAS Grain Filling stage : 70 to 85 DAS Black soil: 3-4 irrigations (12-15 days interval) Red Loamy: Kharif: 5-6 irrigations (8-9 days interval) Summer 8-9 irrigations (7-8 days interval) 12/19/2013 Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 11
  12. 12. Sunflower stage Development Fertilizer application Irrigation Stage Physiological maturity Weed control 12/19/2013 Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 12
  13. 13. Harvesting •Sunflower attain its physiological maturity in 100-120 Days •Harvesting should be done when the back of the head turns from green to lemon yellow colour and the bottom leaves start drying and withering •At the physiological maturity, the seed attains maximum weight and oil concentration and harvesting at this stage, results in highest seed and oil yield. •10 percent of heads should turn brown and florets attached to the seed drop naturally. •Delay in harvesting cause reduction in seed yield due to lodging of plants and more damage due to birds, rodents and termites attack. •Harvesting should be done by adopting proper method. • Mechanical thresher should be used to separate seeds from flower which is labour saving and economical. •Avoid harvesting during adverse weather condition i.e. rain and overcast weather. 12/19/2013 Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 13
  14. 14. Some facts about Sunflower Sunflower is very sensitive to wind damage in the seedling stage and for this reason, cultivation on light-textured soils susceptible to wind erosion, should be avoided unless wind erosion is being combated successfully. Sunflower is very sensitive to water logging. Sunflower is very sensitive to high aluminium levels and should not be planted in soils with a pH lower than 4.6. The sunflower plant has a deep and finely branched tap-root system which can utilise water from deep soil layers, even deeper than 2 m. Consequently, the crop often performs well even during a dry season, especially in deeper soils or in soils with a high water-table. 12/19/2013 14
  15. 15. Important tips to be remember Avoid extremely high temperatures during planting time, as well as the possibility of frost damage. Compared to grain crops, sunflower utilises soil nutrients exceptionally well. The main reason for this is the finely branched and extensive root system. The roots come into contact with nutrients which cannot be utilised by other crops. Young plants are very sensitive to strong weed competition and cannot develop fast enough to form a full shade covering which can suppress weed seedlings. Therefore, the first six weeks after planting are a critical period for the crop. Yield can be increased significantly by keeping fields free of weeds during this time. Harvesting should commence as soon as 80 % of the sunflower heads are brown in order to minimise losses caused by birds, lodging and shattering. Sulphur and boron application are vital for seed wt. and flower opening 12/19/2013 15
  16. 16. Insects : Seedling Feeders in Sunflower Stunted crop growth due to feeders Molecules can be used : 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 12/19/2013 Brands available in market 1……. 2…….. 3…….. Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 16
  17. 17. Sunflower Defoliators Sunflower Beetle Molecules can be used : 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 12/19/2013 Weber Thistle Caterpillar Grasshoppers Brands available in market 1……. 2…….. 3…….. Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 17
  18. 18. Sunflower Seed Feeder Head clipper weevils chew holes around the stem, effectively girdling it. It breaks over, and could be mistaken for hail injury. Molecules can be used : 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 12/19/2013 Sunflower midge is a pest, usually in the northern plains, that causes the head grow in a distorted way (folding, convoluted). It could mimic hail damage under the right circumstances Brands available in market 1……. 2…….. 3…….. Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 18
  19. 19. Grasshoppers in Sunflowers • 12/19/2013 Grasshoppers are a sporadic problem in Oklahoma, because they can build up in large numbers and caused physical damage to the leaves and seed. 19
  20. 20. Disease Rust Powdery Mildew Molecules can be used : 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 12/19/2013 Alternaria leaf blight Head Rot Brands available in market 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 20
  21. 21. Disease Mosaic Disease Molecules can be used : 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 12/19/2013 Downy Mildew Necrosis Virus Selerotinia wilt Brands available in market 1……. 2…….. 3…….. 21
  22. 22. Thank You 12/19/2013 Agrocel Industries Ltd( Agri Service Division) 22