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Chili cultivation in India


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Chilli cultivation in India

  • Silicone adjuvant could be used for yield enhancement by mixing it with micronutrients & liquid fertilizers and also used to enhance the activity & efficacy of pesticides sprays such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides to control or eliminate unwanted pests.. REgards
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Chili cultivation in India

  1. 1. Chilli Cultivation Prince Verma
  2. 2. Introduction        Chilli is one of the most important commercial crops of India. It is grown almost throughout the country. There are more than 400 different varieties of chillie’s found all over the world. It is also called as hot pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper, etc. Both chilli and capsicum belong to same family as well as same genus that is Capsicum. C. frutescens are used for their small and very pungent fruits in hot sauces and as a spices. The species C. pubescens and C. baccatum are grown on a very small scale. India is a major producer, consumer and exporter of chilli in the world. China is a major capsicum producing country. continue…
  3. 3.       The major chilli growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. These states account for nearly 80% area under chillies cultivation in India. Capsicum or Shimla mirch or bell pepper is one of the important vegetable grown in India which is less pungent. Mid hills of Himachal Pradesh are leading suppliers of capsicum during off-season. Pungency in chillies is due to alkaloid capsaicin, which has good export potentiality. The red color of chillies is due to the presence pigment capsanthin.
  4. 4. Classification        Kingdom : Plantae Division : Magnoliophyta Class : magnoliopsida Order : Solanales Family : Solanaceae Genus :Capsicum Species :annum; frutescence; baccatum; pubescence; chinense etc.
  5. 5. Nutritional aspect(Value per 100gm.) Parameters CHILLIES DRY CHILLIES (GREEN) Moisture 10.000 gm 85.700 gm Protein 15.000 gm 2.900 gm Fat 6.200 gm 0.600 gm Minerals 6.100 gm 1.000 gm Fiber 30.200 gm 6.800 gm Carbohydrates 31.600 gm 3.000 gm Energy 246.000 K cal Calcium Phosphorus Iron 160.000 mg 29.000 K cal 30.000 mg 370.000 mg 80.000 mg 2.300 mg 4.400 mg
  6. 6. Vitamins Parameters CHILLIES DRY CHILLIES (GREEN) Carotene 345.000 μg 175.000 μg Thiamine 0.930 mg 0.190 mg Riboflavin 0.430 mg 0.390 mg Niacin 9.500 mg 0.900 mg Vitamin C 50.000 mg 111.000 mg
  7. 7. Minerals & Trace Elements Parameters CHILLIES DRY CHILLIES (GREEN) Sodium 14.000 mg -- Potassium 530.000 mg -- Phytin Phosphorus 71.000 mg 7.000 mg Magnesium -- 272.000 mg Copper -- 1.400 mg Manganese -- 1.380 mg Molybdenum -- 0.070 mg Zinc -- 1.780 mg Chromium -- 0.040 mg Oxalic Acid -- 67.000 mg Source : The National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad.
  8. 8. Capsicum annum Capsicum baccatum Capsicum frutescens Capsicum chinense Capsicum pubescens
  9. 9. Capsicum frutescens Climate      Chillies can be grown from equator to 45 in both hemispheres i.e. tropical and sub tropical regions in areas with over 40 C temperature. It is raised from sea level to 2000 meter above sea level. Optimum temperature for fruit set is 24 C. Night temperature below 10 C fruit set restricted. Fruit weight, length, girth and pericarp thickness were high at 25 C day and 18 C night temperature.
  10. 10. Soil and field preparation     Chilli can be grown all types of soils from light sandy to heavy clay. Optimum soil pH for chilli is 5.8 to 6.5. Very sensitive to water logging. Thoroughly plough the land 3-4 times followed by planking to level the field.
  11. 11. Manure and fertilizers  Apply 100q FYM or compost for one acre before transplanting.  60kg N, 30kg P2O5 and 30kg K2O per acre recommended.  Full dose of P2O5 and K2Oand 1/3 dose of N should be applied at the time of transplanting.  The remaining 2/3 N is applied in two equal splits i.e. 5-6 weeks after transplanting at the time of earthing up and 8-10 weeks after transplanting.
  12. 12. Nursery raising  Apply 8-10kg of well rotten FYM and 500g of 15:15:15 NPK fertilizer during preparation of nursery bed.  About 6-8 beds of 6 1.2 0.15m size are sufficient to raise seedling for one acre.  Nursery soil should be drenched with Formalin solution or with Captan 0.3% @ 5 lit. sol/m2 for damping off control of seedling.  After drenching, the bed should be covered with alkathene sheet for 48 hours then open for 48-72 hrs before sowing.  80-100 gm seed is sufficient for one acre.  2.5mm deep in rows 5-7cm apart is better sowing.  Optimum time for seed sowing in northern plains is October-November while February-April for hills.
  13. 13. Transplanting  Transplanting is done in the evening.  The optimum spacing is 60 45cm for open field conditions.  Immediate irrigation after transplanting facilitates better plant establishment.  Thereafter light and frequent irrigation should be given upto the establishment of plant.
  14. 14. Irrigation     Depends on soil type and season. Chilli plant cannot withstand water stagnation and excess moisture, hence light irrigation proper drainage is recommended. Generally crop is irrigated at an interval of 5-6 days in summers and 9-10 days in winters. Sandy soils requires frequent irrigation than clay soils.
  15. 15. Inter-culture and Weed control     Gap filling is essential. It should be done in the evening hours followed by irrigation. Two to three hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after transplanting are essential. Fluchlorin @0.5-1.0kg/ha pre plant incorporation before 10 days or Alachlor @2.5kg/ha pre transplant surface application give good control of weeds in chilli crop.
  16. 16. Harvesting    Green chillies are harvested after 60 days of transplanting and dry chillies are harvested after 90 days of transplanting. 5-6 picking is done for green chillies. 2-3 picking for red ripe fruits.
  17. 17. Yield  Normally 15-20 ton of green chilli are obtained from an acre  About 25-40% dry chilli recovery is obtained depending upon cultivars and thickness of the inner walls.
  18. 18. Physiological disorder Disorder Control Blossom end rot(BER):- appearance of water soaked spots on blossom end of the fruit. Supply light irrigation regularly. ). Avoid heavy application of N fertilizers.  Adding lime to the soil or spray anhydrous calcium chloride. Sun scald :soft, light colored and slightly wrinkled areas appear on the fruit surface Flower and fruit drop:- due to high temperature and low humidity, low light intensity, short day and high temperature. Transplant seedling at closer spacing. Grow abundant foliage varieties and control defoliating insects. Give light and frequent irrigation at flowering and fruit set stages. b). Spray the crop either NAA 50 ppm or Tricontanol 2 ppm at full bloom stage.
  19. 19. Physiological disorder
  20. 20. Insect Pests Insects Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis):- The larvae and adult suck the sap of leaves, buds, flowers and cause curling of leaves. Aphid (Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae):- suck cell sap from leaves. Control Dimethoate 0.03% or Endosulfan 0.05% at 15 days interval. Methyl Demeton 0.025% or Dimethoate 0.03% . White fly (Bemisia tabaci):suck cell sap and spread leaf curl disease.  Malathion 0.1% Fruit borer (Spodoptera litura):-caterpillars feed gregariously on leaves and scrap them  Cypermethrin 0.05% or Carbar.02% at 15 days interval.
  21. 21. Insect Pests
  22. 22. Fungal Diseases Disease Damping off (Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium spp., and Phytophthora spp.):- Ripe fruit rot, Dieback and Anthracnose (Colletotrichum capsici):- Control Seed treatment with Captan or Thiram @ 2g/kg seed. Nursery bed treatment with Formalin. Drenching nursery bed with mixture of Dithane M-45 0.25% and Bavistin 0.1%. Seed treatment with Thiram or Dithane M-45 @ 2g/kg seed. Spray Dithane M-45 0.25% or Blitox 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1%. Fruit rot (Phytophthora capsici):- seed treatment with Thiram or Dithane M-45 @ 2g/kg seed. Spray Dithane M-45 0.25% or Blitox 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1%. Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica):- Spray Karathane 0.2% at 15 days interval. Leaf spot (Cercospora capsici) Seed treatment with Thiram @ 2g/kg seed. Spray Bordeaux mixture 1% or Bavistin 0.1% at 15 days interval. Blight (Alternaria solani):- dark and leathery spots appear on the leaves and defoliation occur Spray Dithane M-45 (0.2%) and repeat after 10 days interval.
  23. 23. Bacterial & Viral Diseases Disease Control Bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria):development of small dark and greasy spots on the leaves, petioles and stems and water soaked spots on the green fruits. Seed treatment with hot water at 50 C for 25 minutes. Remove affected plant. Destroy weed hosts. Spray Streptomycin 200 ppm + Copper Oxychloride (0.03%) thrice during October – November at 15 days interval. Mosaic(caused by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Chlorosis, mottling, thickening of leaf veins, clustering of infected leaves and stunting of plants are observed. Virus is transmitted by aphids.) Grow tolerant varieties like Punjab Lal, Perennial etc. Grow barrier crops like maize or amaranthus. Spray Malathion 0.1% or Methyl Demeton 0.2% at 10 days interval. Leaf curl:- characterized by curling, twisting, crumpling and smalling of leaves. White fly is responsible for transmission of disease. Rogue out infected plants and weeds. Apply Phorate @ 1.25kg a.i./ha followed by Carbofuran @ 1.25kg a.i./ha in nursery. Spray Dimethoate 0.05% or Endosulfan 0.05% at 10 days interval.
  24. 24. Bacterial Disease
  25. 25. Bacterial Disease
  26. 26. Viral Disease