$650k each Site awarded each year over 39 monthsPublic/Private PartnershipsIndependent Evaluators in each Site“It takes a village!”
“Case-Level Data” refers to results based on analysis of data from the 2,069 cases reviewed in fiscal years 2007 and 2008; “State-Level Data” refers to results based on analysis of data from the 32 States reviewed. Item 16: Relationship of child in care with parentItem 17b: Needs and services of parents (Needs Assessed) Item 17b: Needs and services of parents (Needs Addressed)Item 18: Child and family involvement in case planningItem 20: Caseworker visits with parents (Frequency)Item 20: Caseworker visits with parents (Quality)
For instance: 9 in 10 mothers (93%) agree that there is a father absence crisis in America today."Work responsibilities" were ranked as the biggest obstacle to good fathering.Mothers report less satisfaction with fathers of teenage children than with fathers of younger children.
What is the culture of YOUR agency/organization?
Peer-led solution-focused; Review quickly.
Continuation from last curriculum slide
Example of “jargon”Title IV-D of the Social Security Act (Federal-State Child Support Enforcement Program)Title IV-E, Medicaid, and Other Applicable Benefits
T1 8 weeksT2 16 weeks
Frankel OFA Father Engagement 2012
Bringing Back the Dads! Effective Evidenced-Based Practice for Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare SystemPaul Frankel, Ph.D. (with the assistance of many other Colleagues…) Evaluation Specialist, Mental Health Center of Denver (Formerly) Research Project Manager Quality Improvement Center on Non-Resident Fathers 1 2006-2011
Quality Improvement Center forNon-resident Fathers in Child Welfare QIC-NRF American Humane Association, Children’s Division ABA Center on Children and the Law National Fatherhood Initiative A Project of the Children’s Bureau Administration on Children, Youth and Families Administration on Children and Families U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2006-2011 2
Fathers and the Child Welfare System “Is there a difference in family outcomes based on father involvement?” “Are kids better off?” 3
Communities and Agencies are Changing Organizational CulturesQIC-NRF Research & Demonstration Sites:Marion County, Indiana -Indiana Department of Child Services in IndianapolisIndiana Fathers and Families Center, http://www.fatherresource.org/King County, Washington -Division of Children and Family Services in SeattleDivine Alternatives for Dads, http://www.aboutdads.org/El Paso County, Colorado -El Paso County Department of Human Services in Colorado SpringsCenter for Fathering, http://dhs.elpasoco.com/COF.htmTarrant County, Texas –Texas Department of Family and Protective Services in Ft. WorthNew Day Services for Children and Families, http://www.newdayservices.org/ 4
Exercise: Who is “Father of the Year?”“Alfonso” (V.I.P. Dad) “Chris” (Non-resident Dad)• High paying job • Low paying job(s)• Pretty stable marriage • Never married• Works long hours • Works regular hours• Travels • Has small apartment• Moderately affectionate • Highly affectionate• Minimally engaged • Fairly engaged“Cheng” (Underemployed Dad) “LaRon” (Step-Dad)• Some part-time work • Full-time construction• Pretty stable marriage • Pretty stable marriage• Works from home but bored • Works regular hours• Not the “bread-winner” • Paycheck to paycheck• Mildly affectionate • Mildly affectionate• No night “duty” • Good night “duty” 5
The Facts of Father Absence Proportion of Children in Father-Absent Homes “The Living Arrangements of Children,” U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 2000 2004• In 1960, 8 million children lived in father-absent homes.• Today, over 24 million children live in homes without their fathers.• 2 out of 3 African American children live in father- 6 absent homes.
What about the Dads?Is there a child welfare system bias? 1,958 children removed from homes where the Father did not reside 88% Agency had identified the Father 55% Agency had contacted the Father 70% of caseworkers had received training on engaging fathers 30% Father had visited the Child 28% Father expressed interest in child living with him Based on interviews with 1,222 caseworkers http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/06/cw-involve-dads/report.pdf Malm, Murray, & Geen (2006). What About the Dads? Health and Human 7 Services, Administration for Children and Families, Children’s Bureau
CFSR Case-Level Data: 32 StatesDifferences In Serving Mothers and Fathers Average Across States: Percent of Cases Rated as Strength 8
Interactive Discussion: Challenges to Engaging Fathers 9
Common Barriers to Involving Fathers Mothers’ reluctance to reveal name or location of father. (“Gatekeeper!” ) * violent or unhealthy episodes. * a new romantic relationship. * protect father from further involvement with the court. * reluctant to bring the current abuse or neglect incident to the attention of the father. “Mama Says”: http://www.fatherhood.org/mamasays/ 9 in 10 mothers (93%) agree that there is a father absence crisis in America today. 10
Caseworker Ambivalence Caseworkers’ ambivalence about finding fathers due to: * negative experiences with fathers. * suspect that the father is not interested in the child. (Is this true?) * fear that bringing the father into the child welfare case may increase conflict. * the belief that involving fathers is more work and expense for the agency. 11
Effective Father Engagement Strategies What does “HELP!” look like for these fathers? • Strongly influenced by gender roles. • No “Sissy Stuff!” • Admitting to a problem is not easy. • Difficulty in asking for help and depending on others. • Being perceived as “weak.” 12
QIC-NRF Father Engagement Curriculum • Dad as Part of the Solution: Overview of the Child Welfare System - How does the child welfare system work? A CW representative will join. • Dad as Planner: Service Planning in the Child Welfare System – How does the child welfare system give help to families? A CW representative will join. • Dad as Part of the Juvenile Court Process: Legal Advocacy and Court Etiquette - How does the juvenile court/legal process work? An attorney for parents will join. • Dad as a Healthy Parent: Taking Care of You - What will it mean for my children if I am healthy? • Dad as Community Member: Identifying and Accessing Resources - What kinds of help or services are available to me and my children in my community? • Dad as Cultural Guide: The Role of Culture in Parenting - What cultures am I a part of ? How does my culture influence how I 13 parent my children?
Father Engagement Curriculum [-cont’d.] • Dad as Parent: Understanding Your Children - What do children need at all ages to grow up in a healthy way? • Dad as Part of Children’s Placement: Visiting with Your Children - How does the child welfare visitation process work? • Dad as Provider: Supporting Your Children - What is “child support” and what is expected of me as a Dad who does not live with my children? A CSE representative will join. • Dad as Team Player: Shared Parenting - How do I get along better with my children’s mother, our extended families and the foster parents or other involved caregivers? • Dad as Worker: Workforce Readiness - Why is it important for my children and for myself that I have a job? A workforce readiness expert will join. 14
Effective Father Engagement StrategiesCheck your attitude at the door! Address your personal biases. Resist stereotyping non-resident fathers. Provide a welcoming physical environment. First contact by a male (if possible). Avoiding using “system” jargon! “We have a new family that just entered CPS and we are awaiting TPR. The child may have DD and ADHD, but I’m not sure of the DSM. The MOC told us about past abuse, but we need an assessment by an LCSW or Ph.D. Let’s see if we can use some of our IV-D or IV-E money to help. Also, the child may be under the jurisdiction of ICWA.” 15
Outcomes: Treatment by CPSPercent within Site of Treatment by CPS at Last Interview (T2) Percent of Fathers SITE CO IN TX WA OverallNot at allfairly 5.88% 14.86% 11.11% 39.13% 16%Unfairly onthe whole 0.00% 4.05% 17.78% 8.70% 8%OKAY 17.65% 18.92% 28.89% 13.04% 21%Fairly on thewhole 5.88% 5.41% 6.67% 8.70% 6%Very fairly 17.65% 22.97% 20.00% 30.43% 23%Missing data 47.06% 32.43% 15.56% 0.00% 25%Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 16
Outcomes: Visitation Percent within Site of Visits Since Last Interview (T2) Percent of Fathers within Site SITE CO IN TX WA OverallLess than 10 75.0% 3.3% 40.0% 100.0% 21.7%10 to 19 25.0% 26.7% 50.0% 0.0% 30.4%20 to 29 0.0% 6.7% 0.0% 0.0% 4.3%30 to 39 0.0% 16.7% 10.0% 0.0% 13.0%40 to 49 0.0% 3.3% 0.0% 0.0% 2.2%50 to 59 0.0% 6.7% 0.0% 0.0% 4.3%80 to 89 0.0% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 6.5%90 to 99 0.0% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 6.5%100 and up 0.0% 16.7% 0.0% 0.0% 10.9%Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 17
Parents are people too… “When I was a boy of fourteen, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be twenty-one, I was astonished at how much he had learned in seven years.” -- Mark Twain (1835-1910) 18
“I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a fathers protection.” --Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)For more information please contact: Paul Frankel, Ph.D. Ph. 719/237-0338 or 303/504-6791 19Paul.Frankel@mhcd.org or Pifrankel@comcast.net