P ronouns and  R eferencing
P ersonal and  P ossessive  P ronouns <ul><li>S ubject personal pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>I, you, he, she, it, we, they ...
P ersonal and  P ossessive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use pronouns to replace nouns and avoid repetition of the noun: </li></u...
P ersonal and  P ossessive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use subject pronouns before verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>I  only arrived las...
P ersonal and  P ossessive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use possessive pronouns to replace a </li></ul><ul><li>possessive determ...
R eflexive  P ronouns <ul><li>R eflexive Pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves...
R eflexive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns when the subject and the object are the same: </li></ul><ul><li>Y...
R eflexive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns to add emphasis to the subject or the object: </li></ul><ul><li>I...
R eflexive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns with  by  to mean  on my own /  on your own , etc.: </li></ul><ul...
R eflexive  P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns after some set expressions in the imperative with  yourself /  yo...
R eflexive  P ronouns <ul><li>Notice  the use of  each other  and  one another  below: </li></ul><ul><li>The boys taught  ...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>W e can us  it  as a subject to start a sentence without carrying any m...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>W e can us  it  to start sentences when the real subject is an infiniti...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>W e can us  it  to refer to phrases, whole sentences or ideas: </li></u...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>Note:  We use  there  +  be  + noun phrase to show something exists (or...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>You   and  we </li></ul><ul><li>T o talk about everybody in general we can use </li></ul><ul...
T
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>You   and  we </li></ul><ul><li>T o talk about everybody in general we can also use </li></u...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>They </li></ul><ul><li>W e can use  they  to mean experts and authorities: </li></ul><ul><li...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>They </li></ul><ul><li>W e can also use  they  when we do not know or we do not need to say ...
S pecial  S ituations <ul><li>One/ ones </li></ul><ul><li>W e can use  one /  ones  to avoid repetitions of a countable no...
Q uestions? For more slide presentations visit:
This presentation was based on: Grammar for EILTS by Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen
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Pronouns and Referencing

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Pronouns and Referencing

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Pronouns and Referencing

  1. 1. P ronouns and R eferencing
  2. 2. P ersonal and P ossessive P ronouns <ul><li>S ubject personal pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>I, you, he, she, it, we, they </li></ul><ul><li>O bject personal pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>me, you, him, her, it, us, them </li></ul><ul><li>P ossessive pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs </li></ul>
  3. 3. P ersonal and P ossessive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use pronouns to replace nouns and avoid repetition of the noun: </li></ul><ul><li>I can introduce you to my friend, John. He ’s a student from England. ( not John’s a student ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. P ersonal and P ossessive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use subject pronouns before verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>I only arrived last month. </li></ul><ul><li>A nd object pronouns after verbs or </li></ul><ul><li>prepositions: </li></ul><ul><li>I have had a lot of students staying with me over the years </li></ul>
  5. 5. P ersonal and P ossessive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use possessive pronouns to replace a </li></ul><ul><li>possessive determiner and a noun: </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t have a phone here. Can I have yours ? (=your phone) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Its is not used as a possessive pronoun. </li></ul>
  6. 6. R eflexive P ronouns <ul><li>R eflexive Pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves </li></ul>
  7. 7. R eflexive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns when the subject and the object are the same: </li></ul><ul><li>You can prepare yourself a packed lunch if you like. </li></ul>
  8. 8. R eflexive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns to add emphasis to the subject or the object: </li></ul><ul><li>I can clean the kitchen and the living area myself . (=I do it, not anybody else) </li></ul>
  9. 9. R eflexive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns with by to mean on my own / on your own , etc.: </li></ul><ul><li>I can clean the kitchen and the living areas by myself . (= on my own) </li></ul>
  10. 10. R eflexive P ronouns <ul><li>W e use reflexive Pronouns after some set expressions in the imperative with yourself / yourselves : </li></ul><ul><li>Help yourself . </li></ul><ul><li>Look after yourself . (= be careful) </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy yourselves . </li></ul>
  11. 11. R eflexive P ronouns <ul><li>Notice the use of each other and one another below: </li></ul><ul><li>The boys taught themselves English. (= each boy taught himself English) </li></ul><ul><li>The boys taught each other / one another some new words. (= each boy taught the other boy some new words) </li></ul>
  12. 12. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>W e can us it as a subject to start a sentence without carrying any meaning. Often the sentences are about the weather, the time or distance: </li></ul><ul><li>It didn’t always rain </li></ul><ul><li>It ’s five o’clock </li></ul><ul><li>It ’s 10 km from the sea </li></ul>
  13. 13. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>W e can us it to start sentences when the real subject is an infinitive or an -ing form: </li></ul><ul><li>It won’t take long to settle in. (= to settle in won’t take long) </li></ul>
  14. 14. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>W e can us it to refer to phrases, whole sentences or ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>I only arrived last month and I am still finding it all a bit strange, actually. (= living in a foreign country) </li></ul>
  15. 15. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>Note: We use there + be + noun phrase to show something exists (or doesn’t exist), not it: </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a good coffee shop near here. ( not It is a good coffee shop near here. ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>You and we </li></ul><ul><li>T o talk about everybody in general we can use </li></ul><ul><li>you: </li></ul><ul><li>In Australia you often eat sandwiches for lunch. (= people in Australia) </li></ul>
  17. 17. T
  18. 18. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>You and we </li></ul><ul><li>T o talk about everybody in general we can also use </li></ul><ul><li>we (when we include ourselves in the group): </li></ul><ul><li>We often eat lunch in a bit of a hurry. (= Australian people in general, and the speaker is Australian) </li></ul>
  19. 19. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>They </li></ul><ul><li>W e can use they to mean experts and authorities: </li></ul><ul><li>They have changed the law recently. </li></ul><ul><li>(= the government) </li></ul><ul><li>They have discovered a new kind of beetle. (= scientists) </li></ul>
  20. 20. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>They </li></ul><ul><li>W e can also use they when we do not know or we do not need to say if a person is male or female: </li></ul><ul><li>I asked a student if they liked learning English and they said no! </li></ul>
  21. 21. S pecial S ituations <ul><li>One/ ones </li></ul><ul><li>W e can use one / ones to avoid repetitions of a countable noun: </li></ul><ul><li>I do have a few rules. The most important one is that I want everyone to feel at home. (= the most important rule) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Q uestions? For more slide presentations visit:
  23. 23. This presentation was based on: Grammar for EILTS by Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen

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