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E ssay  S tructure ( I ntroduction and  O utline)
B asic  E ssay  S tructure (Logical Division of Ideas) <ul><li>I ntroduction </li></ul><ul><li>B ody Paragraphs </li></ul>...
T he  I ntroduction <ul><li>A n introductory paragraph has 2 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G eneral statement </li></ul></u...
T ypes of  I ntroductions <ul><li>F unnel  I ntroduction: </li></ul><ul><li>B egins with one or two general sentences abou...
T ypes of  I ntroductions <ul><li>F unnel  I ntroduction: </li></ul>
T ypes of  I ntroductions <ul><li>A ttention  G etting   I ntroductions: </li></ul><ul><li>D ramatic, Interesting, or Funn...
T hesis  S tatement <ul><li>T he  T hesis  S tatement: </li></ul><ul><li>I s the most important sentence in the introducti...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>I s the most important sentence in the </li></ul><ul><li>introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>N at...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>S ometimes lists the subtopics that will be  </li></ul><ul><li>discussed in the body. </li></...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>S ometimes indicates the pattern of </li></ul><ul><li>organization that the essay will follow...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>C ommon  T hesis  S tatement  P itfalls. </li></ul><ul><li>P roblem 1:  T he thesis is too ge...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>T he thesis is too general. </li></ul><ul><li>T oo general:  A  college education is a good  ...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>T he thesis makes a simple </li></ul><ul><li>announcement. </li></ul><ul><li>A nnouncement: I...
T hesis  S tatement: <ul><li>T he thesis states an obvious fact. </li></ul><ul><li>O bvious fact: T he internet is a  comm...
L ogical  D ivision   of  I deas <ul><li>K eys to a logical division of ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>D ivide your topic into s...
L ogical  D ivision   of  I deas <ul><li>G ood  T hesis  S tatements: </li></ul><ul><li>N ative Americans have made valuab...
T ransitions  B etween  P aragraphs <ul><li>L inking paragraphs with transitions helps </li></ul><ul><li>your reader to se...
T ransitions  B etween  P aragraphs <ul><li>T ransition Words </li></ul><ul><li>O ne way  an angry driver may react is to ...
T ransitions  B etween  P aragraphs <ul><li>T ransition  P hrases </li></ul><ul><li>I n addition to cutting off and tailga...
T ransitions  B etween  P aragraphs <ul><li>T ransition  C lauses </li></ul><ul><li>A lthough law enforcement authorities ...
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Essay Structure (Introduction and Outline)

Essay Structure (Introduction and Outline)

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Essay Structure (Introduction and Outline)

  1. 1. E ssay S tructure ( I ntroduction and O utline)
  2. 2. B asic E ssay S tructure (Logical Division of Ideas) <ul><li>I ntroduction </li></ul><ul><li>B ody Paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>C onclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. T he I ntroduction <ul><li>A n introductory paragraph has 2 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G eneral statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the general topic of the essay. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture the reader’s interest. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T hesis statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States the specific topic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May list subtopics or subdivisions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May indicate the pattern of organization. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is normally the last sentence in the introductory paragraph. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A conclusion (concluding paragraph) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. T ypes of I ntroductions <ul><li>F unnel I ntroduction: </li></ul><ul><li>B egins with one or two general sentences about the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>S entences become increasingly focused on the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>E nds with your thesis statement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. T ypes of I ntroductions <ul><li>F unnel I ntroduction: </li></ul>
  6. 6. T ypes of I ntroductions <ul><li>A ttention G etting I ntroductions: </li></ul><ul><li>D ramatic, Interesting, or Funny Story </li></ul><ul><li>S urprising Statistics or Facts </li></ul><ul><li>H istorical Background </li></ul>
  7. 7. T hesis S tatement <ul><li>T he T hesis S tatement: </li></ul><ul><li>I s the most important sentence in the introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>S tates the specific topic of the essay. </li></ul><ul><li>S ometimes lists the subtopics that will be discussed in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>S ometimes indicates the pattern of organization that the essay will follow. </li></ul>
  8. 8. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>I s the most important sentence in the </li></ul><ul><li>introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>N ative Americans have made many valuable contributions to modern U.S. culture. </li></ul><ul><li>T he large movement of people from rural to urban areas has major effects on cities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>S ometimes lists the subtopics that will be </li></ul><ul><li>discussed in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>N ative Americans have made many valuable contributions to modern U.S. culture, particularly in the areas of language, art, food, and government. </li></ul><ul><li>T he large movement of people from rural to urban areas has major effects on a city’s ability to provide housing, employment, and adequate sanitation services. </li></ul>
  10. 10. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>S ometimes indicates the pattern of </li></ul><ul><li>organization that the essay will follow. </li></ul><ul><li>W hen buying a used car, use these four </li></ul><ul><li>strategies to get the best price. </li></ul><ul><li>T here are several differences between a nurse practitioner and a physician’s assistant. </li></ul>
  11. 11. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>C ommon T hesis S tatement P itfalls. </li></ul><ul><li>P roblem 1: T he thesis is too general. </li></ul><ul><li>P roblem 2: T he thesis makes a simple announcement. </li></ul><ul><li>P roblem 3: T he thesis states an obvious fact. </li></ul>
  12. 12. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>T he thesis is too general. </li></ul><ul><li>T oo general: A college education is a good investment. </li></ul><ul><li>I mproved: A college education is a good investment for four reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>T oo general: L asers are very useful. </li></ul><ul><li>I mproved: L asers have several applications in industry and medicine. </li></ul>
  13. 13. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>T he thesis makes a simple </li></ul><ul><li>announcement. </li></ul><ul><li>A nnouncement: I am going to write about sports injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>I mproved: A void sports injuries by taking a few simple precautions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. T hesis S tatement: <ul><li>T he thesis states an obvious fact. </li></ul><ul><li>O bvious fact: T he internet is a communication superhighway. </li></ul><ul><li>I mproved: T he explosion of the internet has had both positive and negative consequences. </li></ul>
  15. 15. L ogical D ivision of I deas <ul><li>K eys to a logical division of ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>D ivide your topic into subtopic and discuss each subtopic in a separate paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>W rite a thesis statement that indicates a logical division. </li></ul><ul><li>U se transitions between paragraphs to guide </li></ul><ul><li>your reader from one reader to the next. </li></ul>
  16. 16. L ogical D ivision of I deas <ul><li>G ood T hesis S tatements: </li></ul><ul><li>N ative Americans have made valuable </li></ul><ul><li>contributions to modern U.S. culture in </li></ul><ul><li>four main areas. </li></ul><ul><li>N ative Americans have made valuable </li></ul><ul><li>contributions to modern U.S. culture, </li></ul><ul><li>particularly in the areas of language , art , food </li></ul><ul><li>and government . </li></ul>
  17. 17. T ransitions B etween P aragraphs <ul><li>L inking paragraphs with transitions helps </li></ul><ul><li>your reader to see how subtopics are </li></ul><ul><li>related. Transitions may be: </li></ul><ul><li>A single word </li></ul><ul><li>A phrase </li></ul><ul><li>A dependent clause that repeats or summarizesthe preceding paragraph. </li></ul>
  18. 18. T ransitions B etween P aragraphs <ul><li>T ransition Words </li></ul><ul><li>O ne way an angry driver may react is to </li></ul><ul><li>cut off another motorist. (+ supporting </li></ul><ul><li>sentences) </li></ul><ul><li>A nother way is to tailgate the other car. </li></ul><ul><li>(+supporting sentences) </li></ul>
  19. 19. T ransitions B etween P aragraphs <ul><li>T ransition P hrases </li></ul><ul><li>I n addition to cutting off and tailgating </li></ul><ul><li>other cars , aggressive drivers often use </li></ul><ul><li>rude language or gestures to show their </li></ul><ul><li>Anger. (+ supporting sentences) </li></ul>
  20. 20. T ransitions B etween P aragraphs <ul><li>T ransition C lauses </li></ul><ul><li>A lthough law enforcement authorities warn </li></ul><ul><li>motorists against aggressive driving , the </li></ul><ul><li>number who act out their angry impulses has </li></ul><ul><li>not declined. (+ supporting sentences) </li></ul>
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