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Nominalization

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Nominalization

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Nominalization

  1. 1. N ominalization in W ritten E nglish
  2. 2. W hat is N ominalization? <ul><li>N ominalization is giving the main information in a clause as a noun phrase rather than as a verb . </li></ul>
  3. 3. N ominalization <ul><li>In spoken English we usually use a subject + verb to describe an event. </li></ul><ul><li>I reacted badly. </li></ul><ul><li>Then really quickly my foot began to go red and swell up . </li></ul>
  4. 4. N ominalization <ul><li>I n formal written language we use language that is less personal. </li></ul><ul><li>W e often use a noun form instead of a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Following a bee sting the normal reaction is redness , irritation and itching . </li></ul><ul><li>In this situation there may be swelling in the area around the bite. </li></ul>
  5. 5. N ominalization <ul><li>S poken language </li></ul><ul><li>Then really quickly my foot began to go red and swell up . </li></ul><ul><li>F ormal written language </li></ul><ul><li>Following a bee sting the normal reaction is redness , irritation and itching . </li></ul><ul><li>I n spoken language events are expressed by verbs . </li></ul><ul><li>I n formal written language events are changed into nouns (redness, swelling). </li></ul>
  6. 6. N ominalization <ul><li>W e can also change some adjectives to </li></ul><ul><li>nouns. Compare: </li></ul><ul><li>The cathedral is tall and can be seen from all over the town. </li></ul><ul><li>The cathedral’s height makes it visible all over town. </li></ul>
  7. 7. N ominalization <ul><li>T he common differences between spoken </li></ul><ul><li>and written English are: </li></ul><ul><li>S poken </li></ul><ul><li>Actions and events are expressed as verbs: swell up </li></ul><ul><li>W ritten </li></ul><ul><li>Actions and events may be expressed as nouns or noun phrases. swelling </li></ul>
  8. 8. N ominalization <ul><li>S poken </li></ul><ul><li>Events happen to people or are carried out by people: He reacted badly, My foot began to go red </li></ul><ul><li>W ritten </li></ul><ul><li>Events are discussed impersonally: The normal reaction is ... </li></ul>
  9. 9. N ominalization <ul><li>S poken </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronouns are used as subjects: I, she </li></ul><ul><li>W ritten </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns are used as subjects: a person, the throat </li></ul>
  10. 10. N ominalization <ul><li>S poken </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs are often action or event verbs: reacted, trod, itched </li></ul><ul><li>W ritten </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs are often not action or event verbs: be, have </li></ul>
  11. 11. R easons for N ominalization <ul><li>M aking texts impersonal and authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>B y turning actions into nouns we make the text sound less personal and more authoritative. We don’t use personal pronouns (e.g I, you, he ) as much. </li></ul>
  12. 12. R easons for N ominalization <ul><li>M aking texts impersonal and authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>C ompare: </li></ul><ul><li>Following a bee sting the normal reaction is burning pain , redness , irritation and itching . In this reaction there may be swelling in the area around the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Then really quickly my foot began to go red and swell up . It just got bigger and bigger. It itched a bit too. I was really surprised by how much it hurt . </li></ul>
  13. 13. R easons for N ominalization <ul><li>A dding information </li></ul><ul><li>N ormalization is particularly useful because </li></ul><ul><li>we can do several things to add information </li></ul><ul><li>to nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>C ount: the two charts </li></ul><ul><li>D escribe: the two coloured charts </li></ul><ul><li>C lassify: the two coloured bar charts </li></ul><ul><li>Note: We cannot do the same with verbs. It is only by changing verbs into nouns that we can add information words to a text in such a concise way. </li></ul>
  14. 14. R easons for N ominalization <ul><li>A void repetition </li></ul><ul><li>W e can use nominalization to avoid repetition when we want to refer back to a previously mentioned idea. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of unemployed increased by 5% last month. The reason for this increase is still unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>N ominalization can paraphrase what has been said. </li></ul>
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