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Citation

  1. 1. C itation
  2. 2. C itation <ul><li>T here are two ways in which you can refer to, or cite, another person’s work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D irect quotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R eporting (through summary or paraphrase) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. D irect Q uotation
  4. 4. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>Y ou may want to quote the exact words of another author in your work. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>A further way of showing that a school is fully inclusive as suggested by Davies is when ‘schools will monitor the progress of boys and girls and where there is an attainment gap will put in intervention strategies to improve performance’. </li></ul><ul><li>(Davies, 2006: 155) </li></ul>
  5. 5. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>R ules for quoting </li></ul><ul><li>K eep the quotation as brief as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Q uote only when necessary (Guideline: no more than 3 short quotes per page) </li></ul><ul><li>E mphasis should be on working with other people’s ideas, not reproducing their words </li></ul><ul><li>Y our work should be a synthesis of information from sources, expressed in your own words, not a collection of quotes </li></ul>
  6. 6. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>R easons for using quotations: </li></ul><ul><li>T he language used in the quotation says what you want to say particularly well </li></ul><ul><li>Y ou need to support your points by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quoting evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving examples/illustrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding weight of authority </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>R easons for not using quotations: </li></ul><ul><li>T he information is well-known in your subject area </li></ul><ul><li>T he quote disagrees with your argument (unless you can prove it is wrong) </li></ul><ul><li>Y ou cannot understand the meaning of the original source </li></ul><ul><li>Y our are not able to summarize the original </li></ul><ul><li>I n order to make you point for you </li></ul><ul><li>I f the quote repeats the point you have just made </li></ul>
  8. 8. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>T hree items of information are needed to acknowledge a quote within your assignment </li></ul><ul><li>A uthor or author’s surname(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Y ear of publication </li></ul><ul><li>P age number from which the quote was taken </li></ul><ul><li>Note: the position of this information can vary </li></ul>
  9. 9. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>E xamples: </li></ul><ul><li>Brassington and Pettitt (2006:312) state that: ‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland.’ </li></ul><ul><li>According to Brassington and Pettitt (2006), ‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’ (p.213). </li></ul>
  10. 10. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>According to Brassington and Pettitt,‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’ (2006: 213). </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’ (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006:213). </li></ul>
  11. 11. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>I n all cases, on your reference list at the end of the essay you should write: </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Brassington,F. and Pettitt, S. (2006) Principles of Marketing (4th edn). Harlow: Pearson Education. </li></ul>
  12. 12. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>W hen the authors are not in brackets expressions such as ‘according to’ or ‘X an Y state that …’ are used to introduce the quotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Q uotation marks (either ‘…’ or “…” are use around the quoted text. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Brassington and Pettitt,‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’ (2006: 213). </li></ul>
  13. 13. D irect Q uotation <ul><li>S ome useful expressions to introduce quotes </li></ul><ul><li>As X states/stated, ‘…’. </li></ul><ul><li>As X commented/comments, ‘…’. </li></ul><ul><li>This example is given by X: ‘…’. </li></ul><ul><li>According to X, ‘…’. </li></ul><ul><li>The opinion of X is that, ‘…’. </li></ul><ul><li>X found that, ‘…’. </li></ul>
  14. 14. O mitting W ords <ul><li>Y ou can omit words that are not relevant to your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>U se three dots (…) to indicate where you have left something out. </li></ul><ul><li>M ake sure you don’t change the meaning of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>M ake sure the sentence remains grammatically correct. </li></ul>
  15. 15. O mitting W ords <ul><li>E xample: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The danger is … that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes Eurobland’ (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006:312) </li></ul>
  16. 16. I nserting W ords <ul><li>Y ou can insert words to clarify meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>U se square brackets […] around the inserted text. </li></ul><ul><li>E xample </li></ul><ul><li>‘ This [academic writing] is then further developed in their undergraduate study’ (Martala, 2006:40). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Q uoted T ext within a Q uote <ul><li>W hen the material quoted already contains a quotation, use double quotation marks for the original quotation (“…”). </li></ul><ul><li>Cai (2008:7) stated ‘different persuasion theories operate well in certain contexts and are then combined in an “integrative framework”’. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: You may choose to adopt the convention of using double quotation marks for quotations and then use single quotation marks for the original quotation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. L ong Q uotations <ul><li>I f a quotation is long - more than three lines - it should be indented as a separate paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>N o quotation marks </li></ul>
  19. 19. L ong Q uotations <ul><li>E xample: </li></ul><ul><li>According to Keenan and Riches (2007:114): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Enterprise Act of 2002 is designed to promote enterprise by minimizing the effects of business failure. In this connection the Act differentiates between ‘culpable’ bankrupts who set out who set out to run a business in a way that would mislead the public and other businesses and the ‘non-culpable’ bankrupts who for reasons beyond his or her control has suffered business failure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. L ong Q uotations <ul><li>E xample: </li></ul><ul><li>According to Keenan and Riches (2007:114): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Enterprise Act of 2002 is designed to promote enterprise by minimizing the effects of business failure. In this connection the Act differentiates between ‘culpable’ bankrupts who set out who set out to run a business in a way that would mislead the public and other businesses and the ‘non-culpable’ bankrupts who for reasons beyond his or her control has suffered business failure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. L ong Q uotations <ul><li>O n the reference list at the end of the essay you should state the full details as in the example below: </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Keenan, D. and Riches, S. (2007) Business Law (8th edn). Harlow: Pearson Education </li></ul>
  22. 22. M ulti-authored W orks <ul><li>I f several authors have written a book or journal cite the main author and use et al. </li></ul><ul><li>U sually more than two or three authors listed are treated in this way </li></ul>
  23. 23. R eporting
  24. 24. R eporting <ul><li>R eporting is putting the other writer’s ideas in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>T he best method to use is the summary </li></ul><ul><li>T he are two ways of showing that you have used another writer’s ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integral (author as part of sentence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-integral (author in brackets) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. R eporting <ul><li>I ntegral (author as part of a sentence) </li></ul><ul><li>According to Davies (2006) it is essential that pupils learn how to evaluate their strengths an weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of pupils learning how to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses was stressed by Davies (2006). </li></ul>
  26. 26. R eporting <ul><li>N on- i ntegral (author in brackets) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence from classroom learning (Davies, 2006) suggests that it is essential for pupils to learn how to evaluate their own strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that pupils learn how to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses (Davies, 2006). </li></ul>
  27. 27. R eporting <ul><li>A t the end of the essay, the reference list will state: </li></ul><ul><li>Davies, S. (2006) The Essential Guide to Teaching. Harlow: Pearson Education. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Q uestions? For more slide presentations visit:
  29. 29. This presentations was based on S uccessful A cademic W riting by Andy Gillett, Angela Hammond & Mary Martala

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