GAIA RESOURCES<br />Crowdsourcing<br />What are the risks and opportunities for spatial practitioners?<br />Piers Higgs<br...
OVERVIEW<br />Topics covered in this session<br /><ul><li>Crowdsourcing
Citizen science
Social media
What are the risks?
What are the opportunities?</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br />or<br />?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br />Oxford English Dictionary:<br />“the practice whereby an organisation enlis...
CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br /><ul><li>In 1858, the Phililogical Societyagreed to create a new dictionary
Volunteer readers were assigned books, and then created quotation slips from them
These were compiled into the firstcomprehensive OED in 1928</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br...
7,000+ people, 420,000+ surveys and over 7.1 million bird records
These have then been reviewed and analysed into the Atlas books, and into a wide range of other material and research</li>...
CROWDSOURCING<br />What models of Crowdsourcing are used?<br />Crowdsourcing<br />Crowdfunding<br />Crowdvoting<br />Crowd...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing doing?<br />Crowdsourcing<br />Design tasks<br />Tune Algorithm<br />Provide Data...
CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Citizen Science?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Citizen Science?<br />Oxford English Dictionary:<br />	No exact results found for “citizen scie...
CROWDSOURCING<br />What’s our experience?<br /><ul><li>Working with the Atlas of Living Australia,which has funding to Jun...
Mission:
“To develop an authoritative, freely accessible distributed and federated biodiversity data management system”
Working in a range of areas to deliver this, all around the ALA web site</li></ul>www.ala.org.au <br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />What’s our experience?<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />What’s our experience?<br /><ul><li>Developing flexible, open source web-based (and mobile-compatible) ...
Software is called the Biological Data Recording System, and has been in development for close to a year.</li></li></ul><l...
CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Social Media?<br />Oxford English Dictionary:<br />	Cannot search without a login and paid acco...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Social Media?<br /><ul><li>Twitter with locations?</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Risks and Opportunities<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Risks and Opportunities<br /><ul><li>Five areas of risk and opportunity:</li></ul>Intellectual Property...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Workforce<br /><ul><li>There are no resource constraints</li></ul>Opportunity<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Workforce<br /><ul><li>Not everyone is the same</li></ul>Risk<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Workforce<br /><ul><li>Listen to the people who are going to use the tools</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURC...
In the US: 1,500 million hours a month online doing one of these two things</li></ul>25% of total internet use<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Online games have certain characteristics…
Use an experience system
Multiple long & short term aims
Reward effort
Rapid feedback
Uncertainty
Windows of enhanced attention
Other people</li></ul>http://tinyurl.com/28mvx7v<br />
CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Some of the most successful crowdsourcing methods include both…<...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Form interfaces need to be robust</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<b...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Risk<br />Data<br /><ul><li>Co-ordinates are hard, even for pros</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />D...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Data<br /><ul><li>You can’t rely onon-board devicesto be completely accurate at all times
We found not only location issues,but also compassissues</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Data<br /><...
But there are valid range extensions, or there are inaccuracies within the known range</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br ...
CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Hardware<br /><ul><li>What other technology is coming?</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING...
Who owns a recordthat is entered to acitizen science project?
Can you even “own”a piece of data?</li></ul>Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />
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WASSIC Crowdsourcing

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This is the powerpoint presentation I gave at the WASSIC 2011 conference. It's aimed at giving an overview of crowdsourcing, citizen science and social media - and the risks and opportunities that it brings for spatial practitioners.

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WASSIC Crowdsourcing

  1. 1. GAIA RESOURCES<br />Crowdsourcing<br />What are the risks and opportunities for spatial practitioners?<br />Piers Higgs<br />Gaia Resources<br />Presented at WASSIC 2011, 21st June, 2011<br />
  2. 2. OVERVIEW<br />Topics covered in this session<br /><ul><li>Crowdsourcing
  3. 3. Citizen science
  4. 4. Social media
  5. 5. What are the risks?
  6. 6. What are the opportunities?</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br />or<br />?<br />
  7. 7. CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br />Oxford English Dictionary:<br />“the practice whereby an organisation enlists a number of freelancers, paid or unpaid, to work on a specific task or problem”<br />Wikipedia:<br />“The act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, to an undefined, large group of people or community (a “crowd”), through an open call”<br />
  8. 8. CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br /><ul><li>In 1858, the Phililogical Societyagreed to create a new dictionary
  9. 9. Volunteer readers were assigned books, and then created quotation slips from them
  10. 10. These were compiled into the firstcomprehensive OED in 1928</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br /><ul><li>Since 1998, the Birds Australia “Atlas”project has been gathering information about the state ofbirds in Australia
  11. 11. 7,000+ people, 420,000+ surveys and over 7.1 million bird records
  12. 12. These have then been reviewed and analysed into the Atlas books, and into a wide range of other material and research</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing?<br />
  13. 13. CROWDSOURCING<br />What models of Crowdsourcing are used?<br />Crowdsourcing<br />Crowdfunding<br />Crowdvoting<br />Crowdcreation<br />Crowd wisdom<br />
  14. 14. CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
  15. 15. CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
  16. 16. CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
  17. 17. CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Crowdsourcing?<br />
  18. 18. CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Crowdsourcing doing?<br />Crowdsourcing<br />Design tasks<br />Tune Algorithm<br />Provide Data<br />Citizen Science<br />
  19. 19. CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Citizen Science?<br />
  20. 20. CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Citizen Science?<br />Oxford English Dictionary:<br /> No exact results found for “citizen science” in the dictionary.<br />Wikipedia:<br />“a term used for projects or ongoing program of scientific work in which individual volunteers or networks of volunteers, many of whom may have no specific scientific training, perform or manage research-related tasks such as observation, measurement or computation.”<br />
  21. 21. CROWDSOURCING<br />What’s our experience?<br /><ul><li>Working with the Atlas of Living Australia,which has funding to June 2012
  22. 22. Mission:
  23. 23. “To develop an authoritative, freely accessible distributed and federated biodiversity data management system”
  24. 24. Working in a range of areas to deliver this, all around the ALA web site</li></ul>www.ala.org.au <br />
  25. 25. CROWDSOURCING<br />What’s our experience?<br />
  26. 26. CROWDSOURCING<br />What’s our experience?<br /><ul><li>Developing flexible, open source web-based (and mobile-compatible) software that will enable a wide range of parties to record and manage records of Australian biodiversity
  27. 27. Software is called the Biological Data Recording System, and has been in development for close to a year.</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Citizen Science?<br /><ul><li>Biological Data Recording System</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Citizen Science?<br /><ul><li>Climatewatch – recording on climate effects on species</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Citizen Science?<br /><ul><li>Safecast.org</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Social Media?<br />
  28. 28. CROWDSOURCING<br />What is Social Media?<br />Oxford English Dictionary:<br /> Cannot search without a login and paid account now…<br />Wikipedia:<br />“Social media is the use of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into interactive dialogue.”<br />
  29. 29. CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Social Media?<br /><ul><li>Twitter with locations?</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Social Media?<br /><ul><li>Lists and updates</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Spatial Social Media?<br /><ul><li>Facebook connections</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Crowdsourcing, Citizen Science and Social Media<br />Social Media<br />Crowdsourcing<br />Citizen<br />Science<br />
  30. 30. CROWDSOURCING<br />Risks and Opportunities<br />
  31. 31. CROWDSOURCING<br />Risks and Opportunities<br /><ul><li>Five areas of risk and opportunity:</li></ul>Intellectual Property & Copyright<br />Software<br />Hardware<br />Workforce<br />Data<br />
  32. 32. CROWDSOURCING<br />Workforce<br /><ul><li>There are no resource constraints</li></ul>Opportunity<br />
  33. 33. CROWDSOURCING<br />Workforce<br /><ul><li>Not everyone is the same</li></ul>Risk<br />
  34. 34. CROWDSOURCING<br />Workforce<br /><ul><li>Listen to the people who are going to use the tools</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Two things that really engage internet users (Nielsen)
  35. 35. In the US: 1,500 million hours a month online doing one of these two things</li></ul>25% of total internet use<br />
  36. 36. CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Online games have certain characteristics…
  37. 37. Use an experience system
  38. 38. Multiple long & short term aims
  39. 39. Reward effort
  40. 40. Rapid feedback
  41. 41. Uncertainty
  42. 42. Windows of enhanced attention
  43. 43. Other people</li></ul>http://tinyurl.com/28mvx7v<br />
  44. 44. CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Some of the most successful crowdsourcing methods include both…</li></ul> Sells advertising, gets micropayments, broadcasts on<br /> social media<br />Science based, with experience<br />systems in place, with <br />infrastructure from research <br />institutions.<br />
  45. 45. CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Form interfaces need to be robust</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Software<br /><ul><li>Mapping interfaces can be hard to explain</li></ul>Search?<br />
  46. 46. CROWDSOURCING<br />Risk<br />Data<br /><ul><li>Co-ordinates are hard, even for pros</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Data<br /><ul><li>Birds Australia Carnaby’s Cockatoo Project</li></ul> 1,217 users<br /> 4,706 records <br />16 months<br />
  47. 47. CROWDSOURCING<br />Data<br /><ul><li>You can’t rely onon-board devicesto be completely accurate at all times
  48. 48. We found not only location issues,but also compassissues</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Data<br /><ul><li>Some can be checked via distribution maps
  49. 49. But there are valid range extensions, or there are inaccuracies within the known range</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Risk<br />Data<br /><ul><li>Have some means to check data</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Risk<br />Hardware<br /><ul><li>Mobile devices make this even more interesting</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Hardware<br /><ul><li>Make the design intuitive and easy to use</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />% of Smartphone sales by OS April – June 2009 <br />% of Smartphone sales by OS April – June 2010 <br />Hardware<br /><ul><li>What phones are they using?</li></ul>40,972,000 handsets sold<br />61,649,000 handsets sold<br />
  50. 50. CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunity<br />Hardware<br /><ul><li>What other technology is coming?</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Copyright and Intelletual Property<br /><ul><li>Intellectual Property and Copyright is still a bit of a grey area
  51. 51. Who owns a recordthat is entered to acitizen science project?
  52. 52. Can you even “own”a piece of data?</li></ul>Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />Risk<br />
  53. 53. CROWDSOURCING<br />Copyright and Intelletual Property<br /><ul><li>But some of these issues can be dealt with through the use of creative commons licencing
  54. 54. In other states of Australia, Freedomof Information is being replaced byRight to Information
  55. 55. Australian Governments Open Access and Licensing Frameworkwww.ausgoal.gov.au</li></ul>Opportunity<br />
  56. 56. CROWDSOURCING<br />Risks?<br /><ul><li>An inexhaustible supply of garbage?
  57. 57. A way to alienate people?
  58. 58. A source of rubbish data?
  59. 59. A way to lose money?
  60. 60. A way to lose quite a bit of money?</li></ul>Yes!<br />
  61. 61. CROWDSOURCING<br />Opportunities?<br /><ul><li>An inexhaustible supply of labour?
  62. 62. A way to engage with people?
  63. 63. A source of free data?
  64. 64. A way to save money?
  65. 65. A way to get money?</li></ul>Yes!<br />
  66. 66. CROWDSOURCING<br />On balance?<br /><ul><li>Crowdsourcing has the potential to be of great use to the spatial industry
  67. 67. There are lots of opportunities, and the risks are mitigatable</li></li></ul><li>CROWDSOURCING<br />Questions?<br /><ul><li>If you want to know more, please contact me</li></ul>piers@gaiaresources.com.au<br />(08) 9227 7309 <br />0411 754 006<br /><ul><li>Web site:</li></ul>www.gaiaresources.com.au<br />

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