Life Sciences De-Mystified - Mark Bünger - PICNIC '10


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These slides are a complement to the video of Mark Bünger at PICNIC '10:

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Life Sciences De-Mystified - Mark Bünger - PICNIC '10

  1. 1. De?mystifying Life Sciences<br />Mark Bünger, Research Director<br />Lux Research<br />22 Sept 2010 PICNIC Amsterdam<br />
  2. 2. A few words aboutLux Research<br />We help clients capitalize on science-driven innovation <br />We focus on emerging technologies in the chemicals and materials sector and the energy and environment sector (cleantech)<br />We have practices in Water, Green Buildings, Nanomaterials, Solar, Energy Storage, Targeted Delivery, and Biofuels & Biomaterials<br />We have clients on five continents – blue-chip corporations, government agencies and laboratories, universities, investors, and SMBs<br />We source our intelligence from direct interaction with CEOs, CTOs, CSOs, and R&D execs at cutting-edge technology firms in our sectors of focus<br />We draw on our network to:<br />Continuously monitor emerging technologies<br />Identify discontinuities in technology commercialization<br />Assist with company and technology evaluation<br />We have global reach, with 40+ employees in New York, Boston, Singapore, and Amsterdam<br />Research team is 67% scientists, 33% business analysts<br />Suntech solar factory, China<br />Qatar Science and Technology Park<br />Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Norway<br />PICNIC, Amsterdam<br />
  3. 3. Let’s talk aboutDemystifying Life Sciences<br />Grok the tech<br />Assess the applications<br />Participate in the future<br />
  4. 4. A technophile’s life story – up to now<br />Car, plane, computer… these technologies have frozen<br />Where is the next revolution?<br />1970s<br />1980s<br />1990s<br />2000s<br />2010s<br />2020s<br />2030s<br />2040s<br />2050s<br />2060s<br />Boring, boring! <br />A long time left to learn new things<br />
  5. 5. The world's fastest Introduction to biology<br />DNA is organized into genes, <br />which create proteins<br />Proteins connect via pathways, <br />which create metabolites<br />DNA<br />insulin<br />ethanol<br />
  6. 6. The DNA to protein process is known asThe central dogma of biology <br />A<br />T<br />A<br />T<br />G<br />C<br />G<br />C<br />Chromosomes<br />The human body’s 46 chromosomes…<br />Gene<br />…contain 30,000 genes…<br />…each made of 100-10,000 nucleotides. The sequence of nucleotides in each gene…<br />Nucleotides<br />DNA<br />…is transcribed and translated by RNA into a chain of amino acids…<br />mRNA<br />tRNA and rRNA<br />…that fold themselves into proteins, which perform various tasks<br />Protein<br />
  7. 7. For example…Translating the ins gene to insulin protein<br />DNA code for ins gene<br />AA code for insulin protein<br />Structure of insulin protein<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Viruses are basicallybare-minimum genes and proteins<br />
  9. 9. Proteins can become messages, machines, or materials<br /><50 amino acids 50-1000 AAs 1000+ AAs<br />Messages<br />Insulin<br />Machines<br />Cellular pump<br />Flagella<br />Actin (muscle fiber)<br />Materials<br />Shell and bone<br />
  10. 10. Protein messages areHow cells communicate and compute<br />Interaction of DNA, peptides, and enzymes enable organisms to develop and change with their environment -- to “compute”<br />Gene A makes Protein A<br />Gene B makes Protein B<br />Protein B breaks down Substance X<br />Is Substance X present?<br />Protein A detects Substance X<br />Y<br />N<br />Protein A blocks Gene B<br />Sequences of protein reactions (called “enzymatic pathways”), perform complex logical operations.<br />Substance X might be a food like lactose that Protein B digests, or a poison that Protein B degrades.<br />
  11. 11. Cell communication and computation leads to self-organization and emergence of higher order<br />
  12. 12. If you get the tech, you canAssess the applications <br />The World<br />DNA<br />Proteins<br />Pathways<br />
  13. 13. % of petroleum use<br />Petroleum-<br />based product<br />Bio-based substitute<br />100%<br />Asphalt etc.<br />Not replacable<br />Propane<br />Biopropane<br />Jet fuel<br />80%<br />Biokerosene<br />Chemicals <br />Bio-n-butanol<br />60%<br />Biodiesel<br />Diesel<br />Renewable diesel<br />40%<br />Bio-isobutanol<br />20%<br />Gasoline<br />Bioethanol<br />0%<br />0%<br />20%<br />40%<br />60%<br />80%<br />100%<br />Technical substitution potential<br />Bio-based fuels and materials can replace 92% of petroleum products<br />Ethanol is a partial substitute for gasoline, but drop-in replacements (4- and 5-carbon alcohols) exist<br />Ditto for diesel, jet fuel, and most petrochemicals <br />Only heavy, tarry petrochemicals lack bio-replacements<br />
  14. 14. But to get more than a few drops, we need lots of non-food, sustainable biomass<br />Oil crops<br />Cane<br />Sugar crops<br />Sugar beet<br />Non-crop biomass<br />Corn<br />Equivalent annual <br />petroleum use<br />Rapeseed<br />Wheat<br />Sunflower, Barley<br />Petroleum<br />Palm, Soy<br />Agricultural waste<br />Forest harvest and waste<br />Losers: Purpose-grown energy crops and algae bioreactors<br />Winners: Agricultural and forest waste <br />Wildcards: low-capex and offshore algae<br />
  15. 15. Synthetic biology is about standardizing biological parts to create predictable devices<br />Electronic circuit<br />Standard parts<br />Predictable input-output<br />Biological circuit<br />Standard parts<br />Predictable input-output<br />Switch<br />Light<br />Switch<br />Light<br />
  16. 16. An actual enzymatic pathway map<br />
  17. 17. DNA sequencing and synthesis costs are rapidly declining<br />Source: Lux Research<br />
  18. 18. So what's that good for?and who's doing it?<br />Party tricks<br />Image of Darwin produced by photosensitive bacteria<br />Real-world products<br />Instruments capable of reading a person’s entire genetic code in hours, for under $1000 (Complete Genomics)<br />Machines that can assemble a new genome from basic chemicals (Blue Heron), and insert it into an empty cell “chassis” to create entirely new species (Venter Institute)<br />Protein drugs that use amino acids not found among the 20 used by almost all life on Earth (Ambrx)<br />Algae that can be programmed to produce the raw materials for soap, cooking oil, and jet fuel (Solazyme) <br />Bacteria that convert carbon dioxide into ethanol (Synthetic Genomics)<br />DNA-based logic circuits with inverters, oscillators, and standard, interchangeable parts (BioBricks) <br />Sheets of bacteria that can count and do complex computations like image processing (Voigt Lab, UCSF)<br />Humans that photosynthesize and houses you can grow from a seed (MIT Synthetic Biology Working Group)<br />Foods, medicines, structural materials, basic and specialty chemicals, fuels<br />Markets each worth tens of billions annually<br />
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  21. 21. Applications lie over business, technical, and scientific horizons<br />2012<br />2015<br />2020<br />Tools for control<br />Nanopore sequencing<br />Gene sequencing<br />Gene synthesis<br />Metabolites<br />Small-molecule drugs<br />Biofuels<br />Biodrugs<br />Bioplastics<br />Materials<br />Minimum-genome chassis<br />Machines<br />Bioremediation<br />Biodevices<br />Bacterial biosensors<br />Tissue grafts<br />Drug-delivering bacteria<br />Synthetic foods<br />Biochemical computers<br />Synthetic morphologies<br />Human-plant hybrids<br />Green goo<br />
  22. 22. Corporations and venture capitalists are jumping in to synthetic biology<br />Synbio collaborations by corporation<br />Chevron - Solazyme<br />Roche - Ambrx<br />BP - Synthetic Genomics<br />Danisco - Brain AG<br />DuPont cellulosic ethanol (2010)<br /> Goodyear bioisoprene (2013)<br />Microsoft “Executable Biology” at Cambridge’s synbio center<br />
  23. 23. Synbio application companies have received more than $1 billion in funding to date<br />
  24. 24. Biohackers are playing an important role in innovation and commercialization<br />
  25. 25. Coming soon to a child near you:Elementary- and middle school biotechnology kits<br />
  26. 26. Unsurprisingly, people have opinions about Life<br />Stem cells<br />Euthanasia<br />GM food<br />Biofuels<br />Synthetic biology<br />“Curing” homosexuality<br />Humanity +<br />…and more<br />
  27. 27. …and that’s been going on for a very long time<br />Cloning<br />Vaccines<br />In-vitro fertilization<br />Birth-control pills<br />Abortion<br />Evolution<br />Transfusions and transplants<br />Clean vs unclean animals<br />
  28. 28. Knowing the tech and the apps, you canParticipate in the future<br />Learn: The last thing we need is more (uninformed) opinions<br />Do: We cocreate and participate, shaping the world by action or inaction<br />Teach: In teaching you learn<br />
  29. 29. Thank you<br />Mark Bünger, Research Director<br /><br />