Escola Básica e Secundária de Fajões 2011/2012 Former: Lúcia Santos Forming: Ricardo Oliveira
Introduction In this project work will tell you the evolution of Computer,. The computer today for young people is a common tool practically indispensable, because of games, social networks, etc. but was not always so, quite the contrary. lets see how it all began.
ENIAC - 1947 65 years ago, it was announced the first electronic digital computer for large scale: the ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator). The computer was created in February 1946 by the American scientists John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, the Electronic Control Company. At the time, ENIAC stood out to perform 5000 operations per second. Today, compared to todays computers, the ENIACs processing power would be lower than that of a simple pocket calculator.
ENIAC - 1947 The computer began to be made in 1943 during the Second World War to assist the U.S. military to do ballistic calculations.
EDVAC - 1949 EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer) created by Mauchly and Eckert, despite being more modern, but occupied the same space as the ENIAC, however, he was a hundred times more internal memory. The instructions were no longer passed to the computer by wire or valves, they were on an electronic device called delay line. This device was a tube with several crystals to electronic pulses that reflect back and forth very slowly.
EDVAC - 1949 EDVAC was intended to accelerate the construction work programs as well as storing data in its internal memory expansion.
EDSAC - 1949 In 1949, there is the EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, which marked the last big step in a series of breakthroughs inspired by the war. Its inventor was the English scientist - Maurice Wilkes, the EDSAC was the first computer operating on a large scale that can store your own programs.
LEO - 1954 The trade in computers began in England in an unusual place. In 1947 he was made a pioneering decision: try to build a computer that could use the office work. It would be the first computer to be marketed in the world. This creative decision came from J. Lyons, the company that owns a network of tea shops, in fact, J. Lyons had a tradition of innovation in administrative methods, introduced calculating machines in its stores in 1896, around 1930, he experimented transactions recorded on microfilm.
LEO - 1954 LEO (Lyons Electronic Office), which was the result of a partnership between J. Lyons and the University of Cambridge, was therefore designed to meet these needs, but only became operational on February 9, 1954, when calculating the payroll of 1700 staff members.
UNIVAC - 1952 John Mauchly and Presper Eckert opened a firm in Philadelphia and created UNIVAC - Universal Automatic Computer, which was intended for commercial use. It was an electronic stored-program machine he received instructions from a high-speed magnetic tape instead of punched cards. The UNIVAC was used to predict the outcome of a presidential election.
IBM 701 - 1953 IBM starts to dominate the computer market to build their commercial-scale scientific computers with the launch of the IBM 701 in 1953. From the creation of technical printed circuit computers might decrease a little more size. The printed circuit boards are used in electrical connection between the various existing components in an electronic circuit. The printed circuit board connections were made on a rigid board, very stable.
IBM 701 - 1953 Before, these connections were made through wires and brackets, which caused instability and poor contact.
IBM 650 - 1954 The IBM 650 computer was made publicly available by IBM in the USA in December 1954. Media 1.5 m X 0.9 m X 1.8 m with a weight of 892 kg The IBM 650 was designed for commercial and scientific problem solving. The company projected sales of 50 copies (more than all the worlds computers together) - which was considered an exaggeration.
IBM 650 - 1954 Despite the pessimism, in 1958, two IBM 650 thousand units were scattered throughout the world. The IBM 650 was able to do in a second 1300 addition and multiplication of 100 ten-digit numbers.
ATLAS, IBM 1401 e IBM 7094 - 1962 In 1962 was first used magnetic disks to store information in the Atlas computer. The first computers to use transistors were fully IBM 1401 and IBM 7094, which together have sold over 10,000 units. ATLAS IBM 1401
ATLAS, IBM 1401 e IBM 7094 - 1962 At the time, besides being huge, huge computers used magnetic tape drives for storing information, and punch card systems, where the information that they wanted to go to the computer were marked by holes made in card - the extremely time consuming. Obviously such magnetic disks were still far from being like magnetic disks as we know it today. IBM 7094
IBM 360 - 1964 One of the first computers to use integrated circuits was the IBM 360, released in 1964. Very advanced for its time, made all the other computers were considered completely useless, so that IBM sold more than 30,000 computers.
Mouse - 1968 Today it seems impossible to tamper with the computer without the help of a mouse, right? Thanks to Douglas Engelbart created by him, after having spent five years developing this essential computer equipment. The funny thing is that the first mouse was made of wood. Moreover, this was only a first mouse button and moved on small wheels.
Mouse - 1968 But common people only had access to a mouse long after, in 1982, when Apple launched the companys famous system of "point and click." That same year they created two mouse buttons.
Apple II - 1977 The first computer more like the ones we have at home or in school appeared in 1977. It was the Apple II, created by an American Steve Jobs, Apple owns the company. The Apple II was similar to todays computers, it was easy to connect, move and carry. These personal computers became known as PC (Personal Computer).
IBM-PC - 1981 In 1981, IBM launched the PC-5150, the predecessor of all todays computers. He was 64 Kbytes of memory and speed of 4.77 MHz. The operating system was MS-DOS software was used by the PC- 5150, developed by Microsoft, which led to an alliance between IBM and Microsoft.
Osborne I - 1982 In 1982, journalist specializing in microcomputers Adam Osborne founded his company and launched the Osborne I, and so was created the first notebook in the world.
Gavilan – 1981/1984 Between 1981 and 1984 came the Gavilan, which introduced concepts more similar to todays portable. In terms of design the keyboard and the opening of the screen are almost identical. It was also the first to run with Nickel Cadmium batteries with a battery life of 9 hours and a whopping 4kg weight.
Since then many other models have emerged but the concept was launched, and there only. Until a very few years, the giant mobile storage unit, batteries and hard drives, limited the size and weight reduction. As the industry was producing practical and economic options, the models have evolved to the level of today.