The Development of Polyphony  (NOT YOUR MOTHER’S “DARK AGES”)
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>Changing of the guard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Normans captured England </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>Meanwhile, a cultural revival was alive in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars translated Greek ...
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL STYLES </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque style in the eleventh and early twelfth cent...
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>Gothic style in the mid-twelfth century onward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall, spacious buildings ...
Polyphony <ul><li>Polyphony = many voices (i.e. more than one) </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest record of polyphony dates from t...
Polyphony <ul><li>Because early polyphony was improvised, we imagine that it was practiced well before the ninth century. ...
Polyphony <ul><li>Fundamental principles of Western music were “born” during this historic period: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
EARLY POLYPHONY
Ninth-century  organum <ul><li>Described in  Musica enchiriadis , an important Medieval treatise that discusses polyphony ...
Ninth-century  organum
Ninth-century  organum <ul><li>“ Oblique organum” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustments were necessary to avoid tritones. </li...
Ninth-century  organum
Eleventh-century polyphony <ul><li>Where was polyphony typically added? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troped sections of the Mass ...
Eleventh-century polyphony <ul><li>Alleluia Justus ut palma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From  Ad organum faciendum (On Making  O...
Eleventh-century polyphony
Aquitainian organum <ul><li>A new, florid style of polyphony emerged in the early twelfth century in Aquitaine, a region i...
Aquitainian organum <ul><li>A  contrasting  style, called  discant  style, features motion that is primarily note-against-...
Aquitainian organum
Aquitainian organum <ul><ul><li>Example 3.4b shows a passage in  discant  style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In both passag...
Aquitainian organum
Aquitainian organum <ul><li>Greater rhythmic independence required a more precise rhythmic notation </li></ul><ul><li>Thes...
Notre dame polyphony
Notre Dame Polyphony <ul><li>Musicians at the  Notre Dame Cathedral  in Paris developed a more ornate style of organum in ...
Leoninus <ul><li>Compiled  Magnus Liber Organi (big book of  organum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First extensive repertory of c...
Leoninus <ul><li>Viderunt Omnes,  written for the Gradual on Christmas Day, has three distinct musical styles. </li></ul><...
Leoninus
Leoninus
Leoninus
Clausulae <ul><li>A  clausula  is a  passage in discant style . </li></ul><ul><li>By  speeding   the   movement  in the te...
Clausulae <ul><li>Clausulae on  Dominus  from  Viderunt Omnes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous substitute clausulae were com...
Clausulae
Perotinus <ul><li>Along with his contemporaries, Perotinus expanded organa by increasing the number of voice parts to thre...
Perotinus <ul><li>Viderunt omnes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A quadruplum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper voices move with patt...
Perotinus
Perotinus
The motet Motets are polyphonic works with one or more  texted voices  added to a preexisting tenor.
Motets <ul><li>Motets originally consisted of newly-written  Latin  words added to the upper voices of discant clausulae. ...
Motets <ul><li>Later texts were written in  French  on  secular  topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Motets are identified by a  com...
Factum est salutare/Dominus
Factum est salutare/Dominus <ul><li>Based on a discant clausula </li></ul><ul><li>The text decorates or tropes the origina...
The motet as an  independent genre <ul><li>As the motet became more independent, the tenor lost its connection to a specif...
The motet as an  independent genre <ul><li>Fole acostumance/Dominus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features the same tenor as  Fact...
The motet as an  independent genre
The motet as an  independent genre <ul><li>Super te Jerusalem/Sed fulsit virginitas/Dominus </li></ul>
The motet as an  independent genre <ul><ul><li>Features the same tenor, but a different rhythmic pattern </li></ul></ul>
The motet as an  independent genre <ul><ul><li>The top voices set the first and second halves of one Latin poem. </li></ul...
Motets in the late thirteenth century <ul><li>A new motet style emerged called  Franconian,  after the theorist and compos...
Motets in the late thirteenth century <ul><li>Adam de la Halle ’s  De ma dame vient/Dieus, comment porroie/Omnes  uses  rh...
Motets in the late thirteenth century
Polyphonic conductus Two- to four-voice settings of Latin poetry
Polyphonic  Conductus <ul><li>Composed at Notre Dame and elsewhere in France and England </li></ul><ul><li>Same type of te...
Polyphonic  Conductus <ul><li>How is a  conductus  different from a  motet ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor is newly-comp...
ARS NOVA
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>LIVING CONDITIONS HAD BECOME WORSE </li></ul><ul><li>The Hundred Years ’War (1337–1453) strain...
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>A divided Church </li></ul><ul><li>King Philip IV (the Fair) of France engineered the election...
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>SCIENCE AND SECULARISM </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophers distinguished between divine revelation ...
Historical Backdrop <ul><li>THE ARTS ENJOYED REMARKABLE CREATIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Increased   literacy  led to more lit...
Ars nova <ul><li>The term  Ars nova ( “New technique,”  c. 1320) was used in the title of a treatise by  Philippe   de Vit...
Ars nova <ul><li>Changes to the motet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  subjects  of motets became more political and less amorou...
ROMAN DE FAUVEL  (STORY OF FAUVEL) is an allegorical poem that captures the spirit of the era as it satirizes corrupt poli...
Roman de Fauvel <ul><ul><li>Fauvel is the main character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fauvel  is an anagram for  F lattery,...
Roman de Fauvel <ul><li>The manuscript contains 169 pieces of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were written for this colle...
Isorhythm <ul><li>The tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirteenth-century motets o...
Isorhythm <ul><li>In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum,  attributed to Vitry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor has two stat...
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT
Guillaume de Machaut <ul><li>Machaut (ca. 1300–1377) is the leading composer of the Ars Nova. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born i...
Machaut’s Motets <ul><li>Twenty-three motets, most from early in his career </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional  texture: borrow...
Machaut’s  Messe de Nostre Dame
Machaut’s  Messe de Nostre Dame <ul><li>Probably the earliest polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary composed by a single...
Machaut’s  Messe de Nostre Dame <ul><li>The six movements are linked by style and approach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All six ...
Machaut’s  Messe de Nostre Dame <ul><li>Kyrie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor is from a chant on the same Ordinary text. <...
Machaut’s  Messe de Nostre Dame
Machaut’s monophonic works in the trouvère tradition These works were performed in the courts of the elite
Machaut’s monophonic works in the trouvère tradition <ul><li>Machaut composed numerous  lais,  a   twelfth - century   for...
Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Treble-dominated songs were a major innovation of the Ars Nova. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Most are settings of the  formes fixes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  formes fixes  are ...
Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Rose, liz, printemps, verdure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This work is a rondeau: ABaAabAB...
Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Ballades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently Machaut’s favorite, these works were more ...
ITALIAN  TRECENTO MUSIC
<ul><li>Music was important to Italian social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most music was not written down, as even polyphony w...
<ul><li>Largest body of polyphony is from the repertory of secular songs. </li></ul><ul><li>The principal centers are in c...
<ul><li>The Squarcialupi Codex is one of the main sources for Italian secular polyphony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for a ...
<ul><li>Madrigal (not related to the sixteenth-century madrigal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: love, satire, pastoral li...
Italian  Trecento  Music
<ul><li>Non al suo amante by Jacopo da Bologna  (fl. 1340–?1370) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madrigal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Caccia  (Italian,  “hunt”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the French  chace  ( “hunt”) ,  a   popular-style melo...
<ul><li>Ballata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular later than the madrigal and caccia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by ...
Italian  Trecento  Music
Francesco Landini <ul><li>Landini (ca. 1325–1397)was the leading composer of the trecento. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was bl...
Francesco Landini <ul><li>He composed 140 ballate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are for two voices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Francesco Landini <ul><li>Non avrà ma’ pieta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many sonorities containing thirds and sixths, though ne...
Francesco Landini
Francesco Landini
<ul><li>Foreign influences </li></ul><ul><li>French influence overtook the Italian style at the end of the century, partic...
THE ARS SUBTILIOR
The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>In the late fourteenth century, French and Italian music became more refined and complex. </li><...
The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>Polyphonic chansons predominated </li></ul><ul><li>The  formes fixes continued to be set. </li><...
The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>The written music often included fanciful decorations and ingenious notation. </li></ul><ul><ul>...
The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>En remirant vo douce pourtraiture   by Philippus de Caserta (fl. 1370s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ba...
En remirant vo douce pourtraiture
Rhythmic Notation
Figure 4.5
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Mus 426 lecture 2 (polyphony)

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Lecture on Medieval polyphonic music. MUS 426-01 at Chadron State College.

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  • The church of San Martín de Frómista, Spain, which lies on the pilgrims ’ route to Santiago de Compostela, dates from about the middle of the eleventh century and is a fine example of the Romanesque style. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.)
  • The church of San Martín de Frómista, Spain, which lies on the pilgrims ’ route to Santiago de Compostela, dates from about the middle of the eleventh century and is a fine example of the Romanesque style. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.)
  • Part of the nave and transept of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, built about 1163–ca. 1250. Its great height and elaborate interior have parallels in the unprecedented length, intricacy, and carefully worked-out structure of the vocal music that singers collectively created to resound through its vast space. (Alamy.)
  • Parallel organum at the fifth below, from Musica enchiriadis
  • Mixed parallel and oblique organum, from Musica enchiriadis
  • Free organum, from Ad organum faciendum (ca. 1100)
  • Aquitanian (florid) organum and discant in Jubilemus, exultemus, Verse 2
  • Aquitanian (florid) organum and discant in Jubilemus, exultemus, Verse 4
  • We have no images of Leoninus or Perotinus. This illumination from an early fourteenth-century French manuscript shows a class at the University of Paris from their era. (British Library.)
  • Performance textures of organum duplum
  • First section of Viderunt omnes, in organum duplum
  • Discant clausula on “ do- ” of Viderunt omnes
  • Two substitute clausulae on “Dominus” from Viderunt omnes
  • Opening of the setting of Viderunt omnes in organum quadruplum. The upper three voices are in modal rhythm over a sustained tenor note. (For a transcription, see Example 3.8 and NAWM 19.) (Biblioteca Medica-Laurenziana, Florence.)
  • Perotinus, Viderunt omnes, opening, with repeating elements indicated by letter
  • Detail of the Twenty-four Elders and their instruments from the Pórtico de la Gloria, cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, ca. 1158 (compare Figure 3.7). (Bridgeman Art Library.)
  • Factum est salutare/Dominus
  • Fole acostumance/Dominus
  • Super te Ierusalem/Sed fulsit virginitas/Dominus
  • A composite of Examples 3.9, 3.10, and 3.11, all on the same tenor or cantus firmus, “Dominus”
  • Adam de la Halle, De ma dame vient/Dieus, comment porroie/Omnes
  • The Last Supper depicted under the tympanum arch of a mid-twelfth-century church in Charlieu, in the Loire district of France. The modular, multilayered structure of the arch ’ s sculptural elements is typical of Romanesque and Gothic church portals and resembles the layered texture of a medieval motet. (Alinari/Art Resource, NY.)
  • Giotto (ca. 1266–1337), The Wedding Procession. This fresco (painting on wet plaster) is one of a series on the life of the Virgin Mary painted around 1305 in the Chapel of the Madonna della Carità de Arena, also known as the Scrovegni Chapel after the banker Enrico Scrovegni, who built the chapel on the site of a Roman amphitheater. Mary (with halo) leads a group of virgins, while a vielle player and two brass players provide music. The large leafy branch jutting from the window is an allusion to the Virgin ’ s pregnancy. Giotto created a sense of depth by placing the figures on different planes of the picture. (Padua, Italy. Cameraphoto Arte/Art Resource, NY.)
  • A charivari, or noisy serenade, awakens Fauvel and Vaine Gloire after their wedding in the Roman de Fauvel (1310–1314), a poem by Gervais du Bus with many musical interpolations. Fauvel, an allegorical ass, embodies the sins represented by the letters of his name. (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, MS Fr. 146.)
  • In this miniature from the last manuscript of Guillaume de Machaut ’ s works prepared during his lifetime (ca. 1372), the elderly Machaut is visited in his study by Love, who introduces his three children—Sweet Thoughts, Pleasure, and Hope. (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.)
  • Guillaume de Machaut, Messe de Nostre Dame, beginning of Christe
  • A miniature from the earliest manuscript of Machaut ’ s collected works (ca. 1350), showing five couples dancing in a circle. The dancer farthest to the right is singing to accompany the dance. The singer resembles Machaut as pictured in the later manuscript in Figure 4.5, at a younger age. The music under the picture is a monophonic virelai by Machaut. (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.)
  • A page from the richly illustrated Squarcialupi Codex, an early fifteenth-century manuscript named for its fifteenth-century owner, Antonio Squarcialupi, showing Francesco Landini wearing a laurel crown and playing a portative organ. The portrait is set inside the initial letter M of Landini ’ s madrigal Musica son (I am music). The decorative border depicts (counterclockwise from the upper left) a lute, vielle, cittern or citole, harp, psaltery, three recorders, a portative organ, and three shawms. (Biblioteca Medica-Laurenziana.)
  • Francesco Landini, beginning of Non avrà ma ’ pietà
  • Alteration at cadences
  • Tapestry from the Low Countries (ca. 1420) showing a man in courtly dress singing from a manuscript. He is accompanied by a woman playing a positive organ, which is portable but must be placed on a table to be played, rather than resting on a lap like the portative organ played by Landini in Figure 4.8. A boy stands behind the organ, pumping the bellows to force air through the pipes and produce the sounds. (Musée des Tapisseries, Angers, France. Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, NY.)
  • Philippus de Caserta ’ s En remirant vo douce pourtraiture in a manuscript from ca. 1410. The texted cantus (staves 1–4) is followed by the textless tenor (starting middle of the fourth staff) and contratenor (staves 7–9, though 8 and 9 are not visible). The red notation indicates changes from triple to duple subdivision, such as from a dotted quarter to a quarter. Changes of meter and proportion are indicated by mensuration signs—small circles or partial circles with or without dots between the staff lines. (Biblioteca Estense Universitariaa.M.5.24, fol. 35v.)
  • The relationship of time and prolation.
  • The four combinations of time and prolation with modern equivalents.
  • Mus 426 lecture 2 (polyphony)

    1. 1. The Development of Polyphony (NOT YOUR MOTHER’S “DARK AGES”)
    2. 2. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>Changing of the guard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Normans captured England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political battles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain fought to liberate itself from Muslim conquerors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holy Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Crusade (1095–99) united Christians throughout Europe </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>Meanwhile, a cultural revival was alive in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars translated Greek and Arabic works into Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>Places of learning, including universities , were established. </li></ul><ul><li>Several outstanding scholars sought to reconcile classical (Greek) philosophy with Christian doctrine in their work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Anselm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Thomas Aquinas </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>ARCHITECTURAL STYLES </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque style in the eleventh and early twelfth centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round arches in the style of the Roman basilica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frescoes and sculptures decorated the buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gave way to… </li></ul></ul>Large churches were built during this period
    5. 5. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>Gothic style in the mid-twelfth century onward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall, spacious buildings with soaring vaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slender columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large stained-glass windows </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Polyphony <ul><li>Polyphony = many voices (i.e. more than one) </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest record of polyphony dates from the ninth century </li></ul><ul><li>Practice slowly grew as notation became more sophisticated, from 11 th to 13 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Monophonic chant was still dominant during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially a decoration of chant, similar to the decorations on manuscripts and cathedrals. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Polyphony <ul><li>Because early polyphony was improvised, we imagine that it was practiced well before the ninth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when voices sing together on independent parts, creating sound layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence can be reflected in pitch, rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added grandeur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functioned as commentary on a chant </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Polyphony <ul><li>Fundamental principles of Western music were “born” during this historic period: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterpoint : the combination of multiple independent lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony : the regulation of simultaneous sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition as distinct from performance </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. EARLY POLYPHONY
    10. 10. Ninth-century organum <ul><li>Described in Musica enchiriadis , an important Medieval treatise that discusses polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>“ Parallel organum” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplication of a chant melody (principal voice) in parallel motion at the fifth below by the organal voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fifths were considered perfect and beautiful consonances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either voice could be doubled at the octave. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Ninth-century organum
    12. 12. Ninth-century organum <ul><li>“ Oblique organum” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustments were necessary to avoid tritones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organal voice remains on one note while the chant voice moves (oblique motion). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cadences converge on the unison. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These adjustments to parallelism opened the door for more independent polyphony. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Ninth-century organum
    14. 14. Eleventh-century polyphony <ul><li>Where was polyphony typically added? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troped sections of the Mass Ordinary, such as the Kyrie and Gloria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain parts of the Proper, such as tracts and sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsories of the Office and Mass, including Graduals and Alleluias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Polyphony is found in passages for soloists only) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Eleventh-century polyphony <ul><li>Alleluia Justus ut palma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Ad organum faciendum (On Making Organum), a set of instructions with examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The added voice moves mostly note-against-note above the chant, but toward the end of the “Alleluia,” the added voice has a melisma over a single note of the chant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called free organum , this new style allows the organal voice more rhythmic and melodic independence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organal voice is now above the chant rather than below. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Eleventh-century polyphony
    17. 17. Aquitainian organum <ul><li>A new, florid style of polyphony emerged in the early twelfth century in Aquitaine, a region in southwestern France. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lower voice, called the tenor (Latin, tenere, to hold) because it “holds” the principal melody, presents the chant in long notes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The upper voice sings phrases of varying lengths. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, Aquitainian organa were much longer than other types. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Aquitainian organum <ul><li>A contrasting style, called discant style, features motion that is primarily note-against-note. </li></ul><ul><li>Jubilemus, exultemus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 3.4a shows florid organum, with melismas of three to fifteen notes against single notes in the tenor. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Aquitainian organum
    20. 20. Aquitainian organum <ul><ul><li>Example 3.4b shows a passage in discant style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In both passages, contrary motion is more common that parallel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrases end on octaves and unisons . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional dissonances can be heard in the discant sections. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Aquitainian organum
    22. 22. Aquitainian organum <ul><li>Greater rhythmic independence required a more precise rhythmic notation </li></ul><ul><li>These are the so-called “rhythmic modes” </li></ul>
    23. 23. Notre dame polyphony
    24. 24. Notre Dame Polyphony <ul><li>Musicians at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris developed a more ornate style of organum in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leoninus (fl. 1150s–ca. 1201), a priest and poet-musician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perotinus (fl. 1200–1230), probably trained as a singer under Leoninus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both may have studied at the University of Paris. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Leoninus <ul><li>Compiled Magnus Liber Organi (big book of organum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First extensive repertory of composed polyphony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains two-voice settings for the major feasts of the church year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leoninus set the solo portions of the responsorial chants: Graduals, Alleluias, and Office responsories. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Leoninus <ul><li>Viderunt Omnes, written for the Gradual on Christmas Day, has three distinct musical styles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorus sections of the original chant: sung in unison without alteration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solo passages with syllabic text setting: extended melismas over long sustained pitches that sound as drones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solo passages with melismas: discant style </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Leoninus
    28. 28. Leoninus
    29. 29. Leoninus
    30. 30. Clausulae <ul><li>A clausula is a passage in discant style . </li></ul><ul><li>By speeding the movement in the tenor, clausulae avoid monotony. </li></ul><ul><li>Clausulae are generally more consonant than organa. </li></ul><ul><li>They have short phrases and are livelier . </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of independent clausulae, referred to as substitute clausulae , were composed. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Clausulae <ul><li>Clausulae on Dominus from Viderunt Omnes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous substitute clausulae were composed for the word “Dominus” from Viderunt omnes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In these two, the tenor repeats a rhythmic motive based on one of the rhythmic modes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor melodies are repeated over a longer span of time than the rhythmic pattern. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Clausulae
    33. 33. Perotinus <ul><li>Along with his contemporaries, Perotinus expanded organa by increasing the number of voice parts to three and four. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The voices above the tenor were denoted duplum, triplum, and quadruplum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence a three-voice organum was called an organum triplum (or simply triplum) and a four-voice organum a quadruplum. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Perotinus <ul><li>Viderunt omnes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A quadruplum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper voices move with patterned clusters of notes in modal rhythms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor has lengthy, unmeasured notes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These passages alternate with discant sections. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Perotinus
    36. 36. Perotinus
    37. 37. The motet Motets are polyphonic works with one or more texted voices added to a preexisting tenor.
    38. 38. Motets <ul><li>Motets originally consisted of newly-written Latin words added to the upper voices of discant clausulae. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The French word mot ( “word”) inspired the name for the genre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest texts were often a textual trope of the clausula. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second voice, formally the duplum, is called a motetus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third and fourth voices are still called triplum and quadruplum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor, with its borrowed melody from Gregorian chant, is known as the cantus firmus. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Motets <ul><li>Later texts were written in French on secular topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Motets are identified by a compound title comprising the first words of each voice from highest to lowest. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper voice(s) were sung, but it is unclear whether the tenor was sung or played on an instrument. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Factum est salutare/Dominus
    41. 41. Factum est salutare/Dominus <ul><li>Based on a discant clausula </li></ul><ul><li>The text decorates or tropes the original chant text. </li></ul><ul><li>Several words of the tenor chant are incorporated into the new text, including the final word Dominus . </li></ul><ul><li>The work has multiple layers of borrowing and meaning. </li></ul>
    42. 42. The motet as an independent genre <ul><li>As the motet became more independent, the tenor lost its connection to a specific place in the liturgy. </li></ul><ul><li>Existing motets were reworked. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding new texts for the duplum, in Latin or French, that were not necessarily linked to the chant text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a third voice to those already present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving the additional parts words of their own; a motet with two texts above the tenor is known as a double motet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motets were also composed from scratch by setting the tenor from a clausula to a different rhythm. </li></ul>
    43. 43. The motet as an independent genre <ul><li>Fole acostumance/Dominus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features the same tenor as Factum est salutare/Dominus (the one we just heard), but stated twice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The newly-composed duplum is quicker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French text with a secular theme </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. The motet as an independent genre
    45. 45. The motet as an independent genre <ul><li>Super te Jerusalem/Sed fulsit virginitas/Dominus </li></ul>
    46. 46. The motet as an independent genre <ul><ul><li>Features the same tenor, but a different rhythmic pattern </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. The motet as an independent genre <ul><ul><li>The top voices set the first and second halves of one Latin poem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The topic is the birth of Christ, making it suitable for Christmas (the season of the original chant). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The upper parts rarely rest together or with the tenor, propelling the motet forward. </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Motets in the late thirteenth century <ul><li>A new motet style emerged called Franconian, after the theorist and composer Franco of Cologne. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More rhythmic freedom and variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The triplum has a longer text and faster-moving melody than the motetus. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Motets in the late thirteenth century <ul><li>Adam de la Halle ’s De ma dame vient/Dieus, comment porroie/Omnes uses rhythmic differences to reinforce contrasting text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The triplum part is from a man ’s point of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The duplum part voices the woman ’s point of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor part repeats the “omnes” melisma from Viderunt omnes twelve times. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Motets in the late thirteenth century
    51. 51. Polyphonic conductus Two- to four-voice settings of Latin poetry
    52. 52. Polyphonic Conductus <ul><li>Composed at Notre Dame and elsewhere in France and England </li></ul><ul><li>Same type of text as the monophonic conductus and Aquitainian versus (rhymed, rhythmic, strophic Latin poems) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually sacred or serious topics, later sometimes critical of local clergy (!) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Ave virgo virginum </li></ul>
    53. 53. Polyphonic Conductus <ul><li>How is a conductus different from a motet ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor is newly-composed, not borrowed from chant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All voices sing the text in essentially the same rhythm. (The homorhythmic quality is called conductus style when used in other genres . ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The words are generally set syllabically, although melismas called caudae ( “tails”) sometimes appear at the beginning or end, or before cadences. </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. ARS NOVA
    55. 55. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>LIVING CONDITIONS HAD BECOME WORSE </li></ul><ul><li>The Hundred Years ’War (1337–1453) strained the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad weather, famine, and floods </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Plague (known as the Black Death) killed a third of Europe ’s population during 1348–50. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims died in agony within days of contracting the plague. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survivors often fled Europe ’s cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peasant and urban rebellions occurred in many European regions. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>A divided Church </li></ul><ul><li>King Philip IV (the Fair) of France engineered the election of a French pope, who resided in Avignon rather than Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Great Schism of 1378–1417 there were two and sometimes three claimants to the papacy. </li></ul><ul><li>When the papacy returned fully to Rome, it brought French music. </li></ul><ul><li>The Church and corrupt clergy were targets of much criticism. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>SCIENCE AND SECULARISM </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophers distinguished between divine revelation and human reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Church and state were seen to have dominion over different realms. </li></ul><ul><li>These views spurred advances in science and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the world, the individual, and human nature made way for a growing secular culture. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Historical Backdrop <ul><li>THE ARTS ENJOYED REMARKABLE CREATIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Increased literacy led to more literature in the vernacular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dante’s Divine Comedy (1307) in Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boccaccio’s Decameron (1353) in Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1387–1400) in English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giotto (ca. 1266–1337), a Florentine painter, created a more naturalistic style in art </li></ul><ul><li>Secular songs received more attention </li></ul>
    59. 59. Ars nova <ul><li>The term Ars nova ( “New technique,” c. 1320) was used in the title of a treatise by Philippe de Vitry (1291–1361) to contrast the musical style of his time with that of the preceding era </li></ul><ul><li>The term is now used to designate the French musical style of the first half of the fourteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The stylistic innovation of this era centers on rhythm and its notation </li></ul>
    60. 60. Ars nova <ul><li>Changes to the motet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subjects of motets became more political and less amorous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The structure became more complex, as seen in isorhythm. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes to secular songs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The polyphonic art song was the most important new genre of the era. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guillaume de Machaut in France and Francesco Landini in Italy mastered this genre while writing love lyrics in the tradition of the trouvères. </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. ROMAN DE FAUVEL (STORY OF FAUVEL) is an allegorical poem that captures the spirit of the era as it satirizes corrupt politicians and church officials.
    62. 62. Roman de Fauvel <ul><ul><li>Fauvel is the main character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fauvel is an anagram for F lattery, A varice , V illainy ( u and v were interchangeable ), V ariété (fickleness), E nvy, and L âcheté (cowardice). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fauvel, a jackass who rises to a powerful position, symbolizes a world turned upside down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He marries and produces offspring that destroy the world. </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Roman de Fauvel <ul><li>The manuscript contains 169 pieces of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were written for this collection; others were chosen for their relevance to the poem’s message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are monophonic . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirty-four polyphonic motets, many denouncing the clergy, are among the first examples of the Ars Nova and of isorhythm . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippe de Vitry composed at least five of the motets. </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Isorhythm <ul><li>The tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirteenth-century motets often have short, repeating patterns in the tenor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the fourteenth century, the tenor pattern grew longer and more complex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The slow pace of the tenor makes it less a melody and more of a foundational structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rhythmic pattern is called talea . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The melody, called color , may also repeat but may not coincide with the rhythm. </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Isorhythm <ul><li>In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum, attributed to Vitry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor has two statements of the color. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The color statements have three repetitions of the talea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The upper voices are isorhythmic during the duple sections of the tenor. </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT
    67. 67. Guillaume de Machaut <ul><li>Machaut (ca. 1300–1377) is the leading composer of the Ars Nova. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born in northeastern France, probably to a middle-class family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He composed in most of the major genres of his time. </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Machaut’s Motets <ul><li>Twenty-three motets, most from early in his career </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional texture: borrowed tenor and two upper voices with different texts </li></ul><ul><li>Longer and more complex than thirteenth-century motets </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteen use isorhythm , sometimes in all three voices. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent use of hockets , passages featuring a quick alternation of voices with one resting while the other sings </li></ul>
    69. 69. Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame
    70. 70. Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame <ul><li>Probably the earliest polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary composed by a single composer and conceived as a unit </li></ul><ul><li>Composed for the cathedral in Reims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed at a Mass for the Virgin Mary celebrated every Saturday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Machaut’s death, an oration for his soul was added to the service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It continued to be performed there until the fifteenth century. </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame <ul><li>The six movements are linked by style and approach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All six movements are for four voices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurring motives and cadence tones unify the movements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kyrie, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite, missa est are isorhythmic, each with a different cantus firmus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gloria and Credo, with longer texts, are in discant style and end with elaborate isorhythmic “Amens.” </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame <ul><li>Kyrie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tenor is from a chant on the same Ordinary text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The contratenor, a second supporting voice in the same range as the tenor, is also isorhythmic but with its own talea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The upper voices are partially isorhythmic. </li></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame
    74. 74. Machaut’s monophonic works in the trouvère tradition These works were performed in the courts of the elite
    75. 75. Machaut’s monophonic works in the trouvère tradition <ul><li>Machaut composed numerous lais, a twelfth - century form similar to the sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The virelai is one of the formes fixes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A popular poetic form in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries often intended for dancing (see Figure 4.7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The form is AbbaA: A is the refrain, a has the music of A but new words, and b is a contrasting musical phrase. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machaut, Foy porter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monophonic virelai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The text pays homage to the poet ’s beloved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machaut uses innovative rhythms and supple syncopations. </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Treble-dominated songs were a major innovation of the Ars Nova. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The treble or cantus carries the text . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A slower-moving, untexted tenor supports the cantus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A contratenor may be added. </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Most are settings of the formes fixes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The formes fixes are fixed poetic forms . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical settings generally reflect the poetic rhyme scheme. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal types: virelai, rondeau, and ballade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In polyphonic settings, Machaut preferred the rondeau and ballade. </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Rose, liz, printemps, verdure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This work is a rondeau: ABaAabAB. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long melismas fall on structural points and enhance the appeal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied rhythms, including supple syncopations, are typical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machaut uses both duple and triple meters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The unusual fourth voice was probably added later. </li></ul></ul>
    79. 79. Polyphonic chanson ( “songs”) <ul><li>Ballades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently Machaut’s favorite, these works were more serious than the other chansons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form: aabC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machaut composed more than forty ballades for two, three, and four parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical setting: high tenor solo and two lower parts </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. ITALIAN TRECENTO MUSIC
    81. 81. <ul><li>Music was important to Italian social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most music was not written down, as even polyphony was largely improvised. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italian courts, travatori followed the tradition of the troubadours. </li></ul><ul><li>The only examples surviving in manuscripts are monophonic laude, processional songs that are devotional in nature. </li></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    82. 82. <ul><li>Largest body of polyphony is from the repertory of secular songs. </li></ul><ul><li>The principal centers are in central and northern Italy, including Florence. </li></ul><ul><li>Few examples of polyphony come from before 1330. </li></ul><ul><li>After that date, there are several manuscripts, including the Squarcialupi Codex. </li></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    83. 83. <ul><li>The Squarcialupi Codex is one of the main sources for Italian secular polyphony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for a former owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 354 pieces, grouped by composer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A portrait of each of the twelve composers appears at the beginning of the section containing his works. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are for two or three voices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of works: madrigal, caccia, and ballata </li></ul></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    84. 84. <ul><li>Madrigal (not related to the sixteenth-century madrigal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects: love, satire, pastoral life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually for two voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each stanza set to the same music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ritornello ( Italian for “refrain”), a closing pair of lines set to different music in a different meter </li></ul></ul></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    85. 85. Italian Trecento Music
    86. 86. <ul><li>Non al suo amante by Jacopo da Bologna (fl. 1340–?1370) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madrigal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike in the French chanson, the voices are relatively equal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last accented syllable of each poetic line is set to a long, florid, melisma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The melody lacks the syncopations common in French music. </li></ul></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    87. 87. <ul><li>Caccia (Italian, “hunt”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the French chace ( “hunt”) , a popular-style melody set in strict canon with lively, descriptive words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two voices are in canon at the unison with an untexted tenor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the text plays on the concept of a hunt, as in Tosto che l ’alba by Ghirardello da Firenze. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imitations of hunting horns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-spirited and comic </li></ul></ul></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    88. 88. <ul><li>Ballata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular later than the madrigal and caccia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by the treble-dominated French chanson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballata is from ballare ( “to dance”), and it was originally a song to accompany dancing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The form is AbbaA, like a single stanza of a French virelai . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ripresa (refrain) is sung before and after the stanza. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The stanza consists of two piedi (feet) and the volta, the closing line sung to the music of the ripresa. </li></ul></ul></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    89. 89. Italian Trecento Music
    90. 90. Francesco Landini <ul><li>Landini (ca. 1325–1397)was the leading composer of the trecento. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was blind since boyhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He played many instruments but was a virtuoso on the small organ (organetto). </li></ul></ul>
    91. 91. Francesco Landini <ul><li>He composed 140 ballate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are for two voices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others, presumably later works, have three parts in a treble-dominated style similar to Machaut’s. </li></ul></ul>
    92. 92. Francesco Landini <ul><li>Non avrà ma’ pieta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many sonorities containing thirds and sixths, though never at the beginning or end of a section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite syncopation, arching melodies are smoother than Machaut’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melismas on the first and penultimate syllables of a poetic line are characteristic of the Italian style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under-third cadences, known as “Landini cadences,” are typical of trecento music. </li></ul></ul>
    93. 93. Francesco Landini
    94. 94. Francesco Landini
    95. 95. <ul><li>Foreign influences </li></ul><ul><li>French influence overtook the Italian style at the end of the century, particularly after the papal court moved back from Avignon. </li></ul><ul><li>English polyphony was also influential; this would become more pronounced in the next century. </li></ul>Italian Trecento Music
    96. 96. THE ARS SUBTILIOR
    97. 97. The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>In the late fourteenth century, French and Italian music became more refined and complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Music catered to the extravagant tastes of performers and the courtly elite. </li></ul><ul><li>The papal court at Avignon was one of the main patrons of secular music. </li></ul>
    98. 98. The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>Polyphonic chansons predominated </li></ul><ul><li>The formes fixes continued to be set. </li></ul><ul><li>Most were love songs. </li></ul><ul><li>Composers were fascinated with technique and extreme complexities. </li></ul><ul><li>This repertory is known as the Ars Subtilior ( “the subtler art”). </li></ul>
    99. 99. The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>The written music often included fanciful decorations and ingenious notation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love song in the shape of a heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canon in the shape of a circle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The level of complexity is not matched until the twentieth century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works feature voices in contrasting meters and conflicting groupings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonies are purposely blurred through rhythmic disjunction. </li></ul></ul>
    100. 100. The Ars Subtilior <ul><li>En remirant vo douce pourtraiture by Philippus de Caserta (fl. 1370s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The three voices move in different meters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each phrase has a distinctive rhythmic profile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern performance of the tenor and contratenor can be either vocal or instrumental </li></ul></ul>
    101. 101. En remirant vo douce pourtraiture
    102. 102. Rhythmic Notation
    103. 103. Figure 4.5

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