Madanmohan and Jai Ganesh
Department of Physiology, MGMC & RI
• Below thalamus
• Forms lower lateral wall and floor of 3rd ventricle
• Each side:
preoptic, supraoptic, tuberal and mammillary
• Many smaller nuclei, diverse functions.
• Name the nuclei of hypothalamus.
• Name their afferent and efferent connections.
• Briefly describe the role of hypothalamus in regulation of:
1. autonomic nervous system and homeostasis
2. secretion of hormones of anterior pituitary
3. body temperature
4. food intake
5. water intake
• State the causes and consequences of disordered
Anterior hypothalamus: parasymp. responses
Posterior hypothalamus: symp. responses
Regulation of visceral functions: homeostasis
Ant. pituitary releasing & inhibiting hormones:
Post. Pituitary: ADH, oxytocin
Motivation and emotional behaviour
Principal outlet for effects of limbic system
Fear and rage
Reward and punishment areas
Regulation of body temperature
Heat gain Heat loss
(exposure to heat)
(exposure to cold)
Release of CAs, TSH
Regulation of food intake
Thirst + ADH
Increased water intake Decreased urinary volume
Osmolarity restored Blood volume restored
Regulation of water balance
Etiology: infection, vascular, tumors, compression.
• Narcolepsy: sleep disorder
• Endocrine: diabetes insipidus, sexual disorders.
• Lesion of VM satiety centre: obesity.
• Lesion of lateral feeding centre: emaciation.
• Temperature regulation.
• Small area, many nuclei, diverse functions.
• Regulates cyclic phenomena: sleep-wake cycle.
• Controls autonomic functions.
• Neuro-endocrine integration.
• Regulates food and water intake.
• Regulates body temperature.
• Regulation of many functions: homeostasis.
• Disordered function:
infection, tumors, compression, vascular