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Mechanical Properties of matter


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Mechanical Properties of matter

  1. 1. Mechanical Properties of Matter Physics 2
  2. 2. Topic Outline • Density • Specific Gravity • Structure of Solids • Young’s Modulus • Shear • Bulk Modulus
  3. 3. Density Density is a property of every substance which is mass per unit volume.
  4. 4. Weight Density Weight Density is the weight of the substance per unit volume.
  5. 5. Densities of various substance at atmospheric pressure and room temperature
  6. 6. Example:
  7. 7. Specific Gravity Specific gravity of a substance is its density relative to that of water and is a pure number. Specific gravity is also called relative density.
  8. 8. Elasticity Stress is the magnitude of force applied in a body divided by the area over it is exerted. Three Categories: 1. Tensile stress 2. Compressive stress 3. Shear stress
  9. 9. Hooke’s Law Hooke’s Law states that the amount of deformation experienced by a body under stress is proportional to the magnitude of the force applied to it.
  10. 10. Elastic Limit and Ultimate Strength
  11. 11. Properties of Materials Ductility is the property of metals which can be deformed beyond the elastic limit. Malleability is the property of metals which has a large plastic range in compression Ductility is the property of metals that has a large plastic range in tension.
  12. 12. Four Methods of Shaping Metals
  13. 13. Structures of Solids Crystalline is the structure of solids in which atoms are arranged in regular pattern.
  14. 14. Stress Stress is defined as the ratio of applied force over area.
  15. 15. Strain Strain is equal to the ratio between the change in length and the original length.
  16. 16. Modulus of Elasticity Modulus of Elasticity is defined as the ratio between the stress and the strain.
  17. 17. Young’s Modulus For tensile or compressive stresses, the modulus of elasticity is called Young’s Modulus. Young’s modulus depends on the composition of the material.
  18. 18. Typical Elastic Modulus of Common Substances
  19. 19. Example:
  20. 20. Typical Elastic Limits and Ultimate Strengths
  21. 21. Example:
  22. 22. Example:
  23. 23. Shear Shear stresses change the shape of an object on which they act but not on its volume. Angle of shear is the measure of the relative distortion of the block caused by the shear stress.
  24. 24. Shear Modulus Shear Modulus or sometimes referred to as Modulus of Rigidity is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain. The higher the value of shear modulus, the more rigid the material.
  25. 25. Example:
  26. 26. Bulk Modulus Bulk Modulus is the ratio of volume stress over the volume strain. Bulk modulus applies to uniform volume compression.
  27. 27. Bulk Modulus of Liquids at Room Temperature
  28. 28. REFERENCE: Modern Technical Physics 6th Edition by Arthur Beiser Copyright © 1992 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.