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  2. 2. DEFINITION<br />A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another.<br />According to Sclater, conveyor systems can be divided into two classes: those that are part of a machine for processing product, and those that move products in various stages of fabrication. <br />
  3. 3. TYPES OF CONVEYORS<br />
  4. 4. SCREW CONVEYORS<br />The screw conveyor usually consists of a long-pitch plate –steel helix mounted on shaft or spindle carried in bearings within U-shaped trough. <br />According to Hudson, for many functions, it is the best type of conveyor.<br />
  5. 5. FLIGHT AND APRON CONVEYORS<br />FLIGHT CONVEYORS<br />The flight conveyor has an endless chain or twin chains passing around sprockets at the head and foot ends, with spaced transverse scrapers or “flights” which push the material along a trough.<br />
  6. 6. Types of flight conveyor<br />SCRAPER FLIGHT<br />Flights are drawn along the trough bottom. The figure below is a single strand, scraper flight conveyor.<br />
  7. 7. Types of flight conveyor<br />SUSPENDED FLIGHT<br />This type has wearing shoes attached to the flights to carry them clear of the trough along the carrying run, and support them along the return run. The figure below is a double-strand, suspended flight conveyor.<br />
  8. 8. Types of flight conveyor<br />ROLLER FLIGHT<br />It is similar with the suspended flight conveyor except that, rollers are substituted for shoes.<br />
  9. 9. Types of flight conveyor<br />ROLLER CHAIN<br />The figure below is a double strand with roller chains to carry the flights.<br />
  10. 10. Types of flight conveyor<br />DRAG CHAIN<br />Such conveyors do not have flights as the open links serve to move the material.<br />
  11. 11. APRON CONVEYORS<br />The alternative to a flight conveyor may be an apron conveyor. <br />The apron conveyor consists of overlapping beaded steel pans supported between or mounted upon two strands of roller chain, and with the usual head and foot assembly.<br />
  12. 12. BUCKET ELEVATOR <br />A bucket elevator, also called a grain leg, is a mechanism for hauling flowable bulk materials (most often grain or fertilizer) vertically.<br />Vertical elevators depend entirely on the action of centrifugal force to get the material into the discharge chute.<br />
  13. 13. UNIT LOADS<br />The term unit loads is generally use to cover the handling of boxes, bags, packaged materials, castings, paper rolls and in general integrated items as distinguished from pulverized, granular, and lumpy bulk materials.<br />
  14. 14. UNIT LOADS: SPIRAL CHUTE<br />Is the simplest method and lowest cost when a direct lowering of package or boxed materials is involved.<br />
  15. 15. UNIT LOADS: ROLLER CONVEYORS<br />Either gravity-roll or power-roll conveyors may solve the problem of horizontal and inclined movements more economically than is possible with any other machines.<br />When two or more roller conveyors are tributary to a trunk line, it is necessary to prevent collisions by an interceptor.<br />
  16. 16. UNIT LOADS: ROLLER CONVEYORS<br />Gravity conveyors are best adapted for boxes or cartons with unyielding riding faces, approximate uniformity on weight, and not over 100 lb. each.<br />
  17. 17. UNIT LOADS: ROLLER CONVEYORS<br />Pallet Chain Conveyors in the foreground is a rotating disc which, with guide plates, serves to shift the bottles from the approach line to the reverse line.<br />
  18. 18. UNIT LOADS: BELT CONVEYORS<br />For unit loads, it may be similar to the standard flat-belt conveyor, but with closely spaced carrying idler rolls. Almost any type of unit loads, not destructive to the belt, may be so handled.<br />
  19. 19. UNIT LOADS: BELT CONVEYORS<br />The Vibrating Trough, sometimes referred to as grasshopper conveyor is the best machine to move sustained output of fragmentary materials.<br />
  20. 20. UNIT LOADS: BELT CONVEYORS<br />When stacks or batches of magazines are to be lifted or lowered, there are several types of tray elevators or lowerers available.<br />
  21. 21. UNIT LOADS: OVERHEAD TRAMS AND CONVEYORS<br />Manufacturing operations, may preferably be by overhead transport, keeping the aisles clear and eliminating damage to the floors.<br />
  22. 22. UNIT LOADS: OVERHEAD TRAMS AND CONVEYORS<br />The tramrail, or monorail system, consists of a carrier suspended from an overhead I-beam track or runway usually suspended from the ceiling beams except in the larger units wherein it is supported below.<br />
  23. 23. UNIT LOADS: OVERHEAD TRAMS AND CONVEYORS<br />Overhead conveyors, or trolley conveyors, consists of a power-propelled chain travelling at moderate speed<br />suspended by trolleys from a suitable track, and<br />provided with attachments of various forms adapted to the work to be done.<br />
  24. 24. CONTINUOUS-FLOW CONVEYOR<br />The continuous-flow conveyor is a machine in which the material moves slowly within a duct as a continuous core <br />
  25. 25. PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC CONVEYORS<br />The pneumatic conveyor depends on a high-velocity air stream to move material in about the same manner as the wind<br />The hydraulic conveyor is a system for handling material; refuse is flushed from a hopper or slag tank to a grinder which discharges to a pump for conveying to a disposal area<br />
  26. 26. CONVEYOR CONTROLS<br />
  27. 27. CONVEYOR CONTROLS<br />Photoelectric control is the control of a circuit or piece of equipment by changes in incident light. <br />Applications of photoelectric control includes:<br /><ul><li> automatic weighing and filling
  28. 28. operator safeguard
  29. 29. sorting
  30. 30. heat treatment
  31. 31. jam detection
  32. 32. automatic inspection</li></li></ul><li>CONVEYOR CARE AND MAINTENANCE<br />
  33. 33. CONVEYOR CARE AND MAINTENANCE<br />A conveyor system is often the lifeline to a company’s ability to effectively move its product in a timely fashion<br />Steps to ensure Peak Performance:<br /><ul><li>regular inspections
  34. 34. close monitoring of motors and reducers
  35. 35. keeping key parts in stock
  36. 36. proper training of personnel</li></ul>Increasing the service life of your conveyor system involves: choosing the right conveyor type, the right system design and paying attention to regular maintenance practices.<br />
  37. 37. CONVEYOR CARE AND MAINTENANCE<br />Here are six of the biggest problems to watch for in overhead type conveyor systems including I-beam monorails, enclosed track conveyors and power and free conveyors.<br /><ul><li>Poor Take-up Adjustment
  38. 38. Lack of Lubrication
  39. 39. Contamination
  40. 40. Product Handling
  41. 41. Drive Train
  42. 42. Bad Belt Tracking or Timing</li>