002 hand tools


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002 hand tools

  1. 1. Hand Tools and Bench Work
  2. 2. HOLDING, STRIKING, and ASSEMBLIG TOOLS <ul><li>Hand tools may be divided into two classes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Noncutting Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Vises, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches and pliers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cutting Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Hacksaw, files, scrapers, hand taps and reamers </li></ul>
  3. 3. BENCH VISE <ul><li>Used to hold small work securely for sawing, chipping, filing, polishing, drilling, and tapping operations. </li></ul>Handle Swivel lock Hardened steel jaw
  4. 4. CLAMPS <ul><li>C-clamps are more portable and versatile than vises, but do not hold the complete work stationary. </li></ul>
  5. 5. HAMMERS
  6. 6. HAMMERS <ul><li>Ball-peen hammer </li></ul><ul><li>Ball-peen hammers are made in variety of sizes, with head masses ranging from 2 ounces to 3 pounds . </li></ul><ul><li>The small sizes are for layout work and larger sizes for general work. </li></ul>Peen Face Handle
  7. 7. HAMMERS <ul><li>Soft-faced hammers </li></ul><ul><li>Soft-faced hammers are made of plastic, rawhide, copper, or lead. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used in assembling or dismantling parts so that finished surface of work will not be damaged. </li></ul>
  8. 8. HAMMERS <ul><li>When using a hammer, always grasp it at the end of the handle to provide balance and striking force . </li></ul>Wrong Correct
  9. 9. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>Make sure the handle is solid and not cracked. </li></ul><ul><li>See that the head is tight on the handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Never use hammer with greasy handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Never strike two hammer faces together. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Little care goes a long way
  12. 12. SCREWDRIVERS <ul><li>The two most common types of screwdrivers used in machine shop are the standard or flat blade and the Phillips screwdrivers . </li></ul><ul><li>These screwdrivers are manufactured in four sizes: #1, #2, #3, and #4, to suit the various-sized recesses in the heads of fasteners. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SCREWDRIVERS Handle Shank Bit
  16. 16. SCREWDRIVERS <ul><li>Be sure that the screwdriver fits the screw slot. </li></ul>Correct Fit Poor Fit
  17. 17. CARE OF A SCREWDRIVER <ul><li>Choose the correct size of screwdriver for the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use screwdriver as a pry, chisel, or wedge. </li></ul><ul><li>When the tip of a standard screwdriver becomes worn or broken, it should be redressed to shape. </li></ul>
  18. 18. READING FROM EITHER SIDE A wrong tool is being used
  19. 19. WRENCHES
  20. 20. WRENCHES <ul><li>Open-end wrenches </li></ul><ul><li>May be single-ended or double-ended. </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of these wrenches are usually offset at a 15° angle to permit turning or bolt head in limited spaces. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Correct Fit of a Wrench on the Nut <ul><li>Be sure that the wrench fits the nut or bolt head . </li></ul>Good fit Bad fit
  22. 22. Correct Fit of a Wrench on the Nut <ul><li>Loosen nuts on crowded places by “Flopping” the wrench. </li></ul>
  23. 23. WRENCHES <ul><li>Box-end wrenches </li></ul><ul><li>The box-end wrenches have a precisely cut notches around the inside face, which fit closely over the points on the outside of the nut. </li></ul><ul><li>These type of wrench cannot slip when correct size is used. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Box-end Wrench 12 - point 6 - point
  25. 25. WRENCHES <ul><li>Combination Wrench </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of a box wrench on one end and an open-end wrench on the other. </li></ul>
  26. 26. WRENCHES <ul><li>Socket wrenches </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to box wrenches in that they are usually made with 12 points and surround the nut. </li></ul>
  27. 27. SOCKETS Modern Type 12 – point socket Early Type 6 – point socket
  28. 28. WRENCHES <ul><li>Socket Wrench and Handles </li></ul>Sliding handle Extension Socket Ratchet handle Speed handle Universal joint
  29. 29. WRENCHES <ul><li>Torque Wrench </li></ul><ul><li>Measures resistance to turning called torque. </li></ul><ul><li>Torque is a twist measured in pounds-foot (Newton-meter). </li></ul>
  30. 30. WRENCHES <ul><li>Adjustable wrench </li></ul><ul><li>May be adjusted within a certain range to fit several sizes of nut or bolt head. </li></ul><ul><li>This particular wrench is particularly useful for odd size nuts or when another wrench of proper size is not available. </li></ul>Adjustable Jaw Adjusting Screw
  31. 31. Correct Use of Adjustable Wrench <ul><li>Adjustable wrench are not intended for hard service – treat them gently </li></ul><ul><li>(Tightening Shown) </li></ul>Wrong way Right way
  32. 32. Correct Use of Adjustable Wrench <ul><li>Tighten the Adjustable Wrench on the nut. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pull the adjustable wrench until it has been tighten on the nut. </li></ul>
  33. 33. WRENCHES <ul><li>Allen set screw wrenches </li></ul><ul><li>Are hexagonal and fit into the recesses of socket head setscrews. </li></ul>
  34. 34. WRENCHES <ul><li>Face Pin spanner wrenches </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized wrenches generally supplied by the machine tool manufacturer for use on specific machines. </li></ul>
  35. 35. HINTS ON USING WRENCHES <ul><li>Select a wrench which fits the nut or bolt. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever possible, pull rather than push on a wrench. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a wrench in the same plane as the nut or bolt head. </li></ul><ul><li>When tightening or loosening a nut, give it a sharp quick jerk, which is more effective than a steady pull. </li></ul><ul><li>Put a drop of oil on the thread when assembling a bolt and nut to ensure easier removal later. </li></ul>
  36. 36. PLIERS
  37. 37. PLIERS <ul><li>Pliers are used for gripping and holding small parts for certain machining operations. </li></ul>
  38. 38. PLIERS <ul><li>Combination or slip-joint pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable, used to grip both large and small work pieces. </li></ul>
  39. 39. PLIERS <ul><li>Side-cutting pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Used mainly for cutting, gripping, and bending of small diameter rods or wires. </li></ul>
  40. 40. PLIERS <ul><li>Needle-nose pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Used for holding small parts, for positioning them in hard-to-get-at places, and for bending or forming wire. </li></ul>
  41. 41. PLIERS <ul><li>Diagonal cutters </li></ul><ul><li>Used solely for cutting wire and small pieces of soft metal. </li></ul>
  42. 42. PLIERS <ul><li>Vise-grip pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide extremely high gripping power because of the adjustable lever action. </li></ul>
  43. 43. HINTS ON USING PLIERS <ul><li>Never use pliers instead of wrench. </li></ul><ul><li>Never attempt to cut large-diameter or heat-treated material with pliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep pliers clean and lubricated. </li></ul>