Distance Education: Alternative Learning System Beyond Borders
At the end of this module, the learners should be able to;
Familiarize with the concept and context of distance
education as an alternative learning mode of delivery
Cite the advantages and disadvantages of distance
Describe how interaction and technology operate in
distance education as a system; and
Affirm and recognize that distance education is a
viable strategy for access to quality higher education
Teaching and learning are no longer confined to the
classroom or the school day. There are many
technologies that can offer a great deal of flexibility in
when ,where, and how education is distributed.
Distances Education is rapidly becoming a strategic
alternative delivery mechanism in the global education
landscape. As a educational strategy other than the
traditional face- to- face classroom setting, distance
education has been adopted to reach out remote and
diverse independent learners.
CONCEPT AND CONTEXT OF
In retrospect, the history of distance education shows
that it had more than one historical path and that the
evolution has not been easy. Many of the same
problems facing implementation and acceptance of
educational innovations today have been faced by
distance education throughout its history.
The history of distance education could be traced back
to the early 1700s in the form of correspondence
education, but technology-based distance education
might be best linked to the introduction of audiovisual
devices into the schools in the early 1900s.
Distance education is synonymous to distance
learning, open learning, e- learning, online learning or
wed-based learning. What is distance learning or
A field of education that focuses on the pedagogy and
andragogy technology, and instructional systems
design that aim to deliver education to student who
are not physically on site.
Education where teachers and students are separated
in the place and time. They communicate at times of
their own choosing by exchanging printed or
electronic media, or through technology that allows
them to communicate in real time and through other
Mode of educational delivery where teacher and learner are
separated in time and space, and instruction is delivered through
specially designed materials and methods using appropriate
technologies and supported by organizational and
administrative structures and arrangements
Education that takes place when the instructor and student are
separated by space and/or time. The gad between the two can be
bridged through the technology. A mode of education in which
students enrolled in a course do not attend the institution, but
study off- campus and may submit assignments by mail or email.
Instructional programs or courses in which the instructor and
students need not be in the same physical place, particularly
those relying on computers, audio, or video technology as the
medium for delivery and, sometimes, for two-way interaction
Instructional programs or courses in which the
instructor and students need not be in the same
physical place, particularly those relying on
computers, audio, or video technology as the medium
for delivery and, sometimes, for two-way interaction.
“online learning can be a lifeline
to those who have obstacles,
such as geographical distances
or physical disabilities”.
Characteristics of Distance
DE provides learning opportunities to individual
learners and groups who may not have the chance and
time to attend formal schooling or face-to-face
instruction due to physical disabilities, ailment, work
early marriage, etc.
DE is learner-centered. It is focused on the needs of
the learner with the end goal of facilitating
independent and self-paced learning. For slow and
quick learners this reduces stress and increases
DE provides learning packages designed for self-directed
learning utilizing various media, multi-media
and other new technologies prepared by
academically qualified instructional designers.
DE has an organization structure and clear
institutional systems and procedures for managing
and ensuring academic supervision.
DE is an outgrowth of research on theoretical and
conceptual models of learning.
ADVANTAGES OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
Distance education does not require comminuting
You can complete most of the classes at your convenience.
Live anywhere, study from anywhere while pursuing the
education of your choice.
Gain extra knowledge.
Self –paced learning.
Convenience and Flexibility
Vast Resources Readily Available
Key Players in Distance Education
4 types of interaction in distance
Thormond (2003) defined interaction as;
the learners engagement with the
course content, other learners, the
instructor, and the technological
medium used in the course. Interaction
is the result in a reciprocal exchange of
Learner content Interaction
It takes place between the student and the content or the subject
matter that is delivered to him/her.
Learner with the help of the teacher encounter new information
Instructor help the student to reinforce understanding of the
material or elucidate meaning.
Clarify unclear points and reinforce correct interpretation of the
Interaction between student and another or between several
Student’s experience with computers can affect their learning in
distance education as well as improve their computer skills.
Student must be computer literate.
Distance Education Technology
Print material were mailed to students and returned to the teachers
through the postal system.
With the increased popularity of internet, computer technologies are
receiving more and more attention as a means of delivering distance
It includes email, online collaborations, and web based education.
Ability to see and hear an instructor offers opportunities for behavior
modeling, demonstration and instruction of abstract concept.
Videotapes and DVDs offer popular, easy to use formats for
Audio or voice technology offer cost-effective ways to enhance distance
Topics :Traditional face to face Instruction vs distance
Total time for each debate will be approximately 30
1. For each topic, there will be a 3 minute unbiased
instruction. This neutral instruction will be assigned
to someone other than the two teams in a particular
2.Following the unbiased introduction, there will be a
5minute statement by the first team outlining their
plan to implement the given topic.
3.the second team then gives their 5 minutes
statement. Ideally, they will anticipate some of what
the first team has to say and will have enough data
researched to be able to show the flaws and problems
with the first team’s plan. Then second team usually
does not present an alternative plan, as the status quo
is often the alternative.
4.Two-minute second team rebuttal
5.Two-minute first team rebuttal
6.Two-minute second team rebuttal
7. Two-minute first team rebuttal
8.Question from the judges and the audience(10
The BALS implements two major NFE programs (Basic
Literacy Program and Accreditation and Equivalency
Program) through a contracting scheme with qualified
education service provides using government funds for
field operations know as Literacy Service Contracting
Scheme(LSCS) and Learning Support Delivery
System(LSDS).The contracting scheme also includes
contracting public elementary and secondary schools
that implement the Balik-Paaralan Para Sa Out of
The funds for the contracting scheme is known as
Field Operation Funds for ASL as provided for in
General Appropriation Act,RA9162, special Provision
CBI-Computer-Based Instruction (eSkwela)
Alternative Learning system program are being
delivered in various modes such as face to face group
learning, family or household approach, individual
tutorials, radio-based learning and even independent
learning. The computer-based delivery of the ALS A&E
program is called eskwela.
Community Learning Center (CLC)
Serves as a learning hub in the community for out-of-school
children, youth and adults where learning
resources are available for their used and where
educational activities are managed by the community
INFED Informal Education
Informal education(INFED) is a lifelong process of
learning by which every person acquires and
accumulates knowledge, skills attitudes, and insights
from daily experiences at home. At work, at play and
from life itself.
The persistence of the problem with OSY in the country can be
attributed to various factors. One of which is that not all of the
out-of-school youth are tapped or given the opportunity to
join or benefit from programs and services exclusively for
Despite the efforts of various government agencies to reach
out to OSY in the country, assistance and services still have not
been extended to many of them. According to the Department
of Social Welfare and Development, for example, only 31 are
OSY out of the 4, 617 young Filipinos served by the
department in the first semester of 2012. This can be ascribed
to the lack or absence of a unified national framework or
strategy to address the issue of OSY in the country.
Furthermore, among the OSY who are privileged to
benefit from programs and services such as those from
DepEd, TESDA, DOLE, and NGOs such as the USAID,
only a few were able to finish the program or actually
utilize it to continue studying or seek employment
In the 2010 Annual Report of the DepEd Bureau of
Alternative Learning System (BALS), statistics show
that 236, 785 out of the 333, 602 learners enrolled or
70. 98 percent completed the ALS. Out of the almost
71 percent who completed the ALS, a total of 33, 197
learners or only 14.02 percent passed the Accreditation
and Equivalency (A&E) Test.
These lead to a waste of resources and bring us back to
the main problem of the nation- the persistence of
OSY in the Philippines. To answer this, the national
government led by the Department of Education and
the National Youth Commission, together with the
Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority, the Department of Labor and Employment,
the Department of Interior and Local Government and
the Department of Social
Work and Development will launch the Out-of-School
Youth Barangay Targeting System (OSY BTS) and the
Community Reintegration Program for the Out-of
School Youth (OSY CoRPs) under the nationwide
umbrella campaign ABOT-ALAM PROJECT. ABOT-ALAM
PROJECT is a nationwide campaign and
strategy with the primary goal of targeting all OSY in
the country and reintegrating them to their
communities, achieving a zero percent OSY in the
Philippines by 2016
April B. Milano