Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Microbiome Studies - Challenges and Opportunities

1,028 views

Published on

Talk by Jonathan Eisen for UC Davis Medical Microbiology and Immunology department meeting with School of Medicine Dean

Published in: Science
  • Be the first to comment

Microbiome Studies - Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. Jonathan Eisen Lab Topics
  2. 2. 0 350 700 1050 1400 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 Pubmed “Microbiome” Hits The Rise of the Microbiome
  3. 3. Challenge 1: Complexity Microbial Diversity Microbial Diversity2 Fragmented Data HUMA MICROBIOM YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICRO fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually on about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and othe microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOIN Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. Our microbiome helps us ex and nutrients from the and crowds out or inhibit WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MI The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organ includes viruses, bacteria, and fun Not all microbes make us sick - the and on our bodies play many esse HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat and crowds out or inhibits pathogens WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. Host Variation HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HU MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% h rest is many t species of ba microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbi and nu and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For t will c micro s p n fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, b Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HU MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% h rest is many t species of ba microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbi and nu and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For t will c micro s p n fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, b Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUM MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% hu rest is many t species of bac microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbio and nut and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For th will c micro so pe ne fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, ba Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUM MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% hu rest is many t species of bac microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbio and nut and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For th will c micro so pe ne fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, ba Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome Functional Diversity
  4. 4. Challenge 1: Complexity HUMA MICROBIOM YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICRO fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually on about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and othe microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOIN Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. Our microbiome helps us ex and nutrients from the and crowds out or inhibit WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MI The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organ includes viruses, bacteria, and fun Not all microbes make us sick - the and on our bodies play many esse HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat and crowds out or inhibits pathogens WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. Host Variation HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HU MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% h rest is many t species of ba microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbi and nu and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For t will c micro s p n fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, b Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HU MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% h rest is many t species of ba microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbi and nu and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For t will c micro s p n fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, b Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUM MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% hu rest is many t species of bac microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbio and nut and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For th will c micro so pe ne fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, ba Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUMAN MICROBIOME YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND MICROBES Learn more about your microbiome American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human body is actually only about 25% human cells. The rest is many thousands of species of bacteria and other microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THEY DOING? Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. skinGI tractlungsmouth Our microbiome helps us extract energy and nutrients from the food we eat, and crowds out or inhibits pathogens. HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROBIOME? BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENVIRONMENT: For the rest of the baby’s life, it will continuously encounter new microbes from: soil and water people, pets, plants new and diverse foods nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WHATʼS A MICROBE? The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a microscopic organism - this includes viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Not all microbes make us sick - the microbes in and on our bodies play many essential roles. 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome 3 PINTS = VOLUME of the microbiome Viruses outnumber bacteria by about 5:1. 5 1:99% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. urogenital tract HUM MICROBI YOUR BODY: HUMAN AND M Learn more about your micro American Academy of Microbiology: http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome fungal bacterial human WHOʼS THERE? A human bod about 25% hu rest is many t species of bac microbes. Cells in the human body: WHERE ARE THEY? WHAT ARE THE Wherever the human body is exposed to the outside world, there is a microbial community. GI tractlungsmouth Our microbio and nut and crowd HOW DO WE GET OUR MICROB BIRTH: A newborn gets its microbes from: BREAST MILK: Breast milk has been fine- tuned over millions of years to provide: ENV For th will c micro so pe ne fo nutrients, vitamins, and antibodies diverse microbes to populate the baby’s gut its mother’s birth canal skin of its mother and other care- givers WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? WAIT ... WH The human body is home to trillions of microbes. The community of microbes living in intimate association with our bodies, and the genes they contain, make up the human microbiome. A microbe is a mic includes viruses, ba Not all microbes m and on our bodies 2.5lb 2.5 LBS = WEIGHT of the microbiome Viru 599% Microbes contribute an extra 2,000,000 genes to the 20,000 gene human genome. http://bit.ly/HumanMicrobiome TranscriptomeSNPs, CNVs Epigenetics Environment
  5. 5. Challenge 2: Public Understanding
  6. 6. Challenge 2: Public Understanding Germophobia
  7. 7. Challenge 2: Public Understanding Germophobia Microbiomania
  8. 8. Opportunity 1: Better Reference Data
  9. 9. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria & Archaea Figure from Barton, Eisen et al. “Evolution”, CSHL Press based on Baldauf et al Tree
  10. 10. JGI Dark Matter Project environmental samples (n=9) isolation of single cells (n=9,600) whole genome amplification (n=3,300) SSU rRNA gene based identification (n=2,000) genome sequencing, assembly and QC (n=201) draft genomes (n=201) SAK HSM ETLTG HOT GOM GBS EPR TAETL T PR EBS AK E SM G TATTG OM OT seawater brackish/freshwater hydrothermal sediment bioreactor GN04 WS3 (Latescibacteria) GN01 +Gí LD1 WS1 Poribacteria BRC1 Lentisphaerae Verrucomicrobia OP3 (Omnitrophica) Chlamydiae Planctomycetes NKB19 (Hydrogenedentes) WYO Armatimonadetes WS4 Actinobacteria Gemmatimonadetes NC10 SC4 WS2 Cyanobacteria :36í2 Deltaproteobacteria EM19 (Calescamantes) 2FW6SDí )HUYLGLEDFWHULD
  11. 11. GAL35 Aquificae EM3 Thermotogae Dictyoglomi SPAM GAL15 CD12 (Aerophobetes) OP8 (Aminicenantes) AC1 SBR1093 Thermodesulfobacteria Deferribacteres Synergistetes OP9 (Atribacteria) :36í2 Caldiserica AD3 Chloroflexi Acidobacteria Elusimicrobia Nitrospirae 49S1 2B Caldithrix GOUTA4 6$5 0DULQLPLFURELD
  12. 12. Chlorobi )LUPLFXWHV Tenericutes )XVREDFWHULD Chrysiogenetes Proteobacteria )LEUREDFWHUHV TG3 Spirochaetes WWE1 (Cloacamonetes) 70 ZB3 093í 'HLQRFRFFXVí7KHUPXV OP1 (Acetothermia) Bacteriodetes TM7 GN02 (Gracilibacteria) SR1 BH1 OD1 (Parcubacteria) :6 OP11 (Microgenomates) Euryarchaeota Micrarchaea DSEG (Aenigmarchaea) Nanohaloarchaea Nanoarchaea Cren MCG Thaumarchaeota Cren C2 Aigarchaeota Cren pISA7 Cren Thermoprotei Korarchaeota pMC2A384 (Diapherotrites) BACTERIA ARCHAEA archaeal toxins (Nanoarchaea) lytic murein transglycosylase stringent response (Diapherotrites, Nanoarchaea) ppGpp limiting amino acids SpotT RelA (GTP or GDP) + PPi GTP or GDP +ATP limiting phosphate, fatty acids, carbon, iron DksA Expression of components for stress response sigma factor (Diapherotrites, Nanoarchaea) ı4 ȕ ȕ¶ ı2ı3 ı1 -35 -10 Į17' Į7' 51$ SROPHUDVH oxidoretucase + +e- donor e- acceptor H 1 Ribo ADP + 1+2 O Reduction Oxidation H 1 Ribo ADP 1+ O 2H 1$' + H 1$'++ + - HGT from Eukaryotes (Nanoarchaea) Eukaryota O +2+2 OH 1+ 2+3 O O +2+2 1+ 2+3 O tetra- peptide O +2+2 OH 1+ 2+3 O O +2+2 1+ 2+3 O tetra- peptide murein (peptido-glycan) archaeal type purine synthesis (Microgenomates) PurF PurD 3XU1 PurL/Q PurM PurK PurE 3XU PurB PurP ? Archaea adenine guanine O + 12 + 1 1+2 1 1 H H 1 1 1 H H H1 1 H PRPP )$,$5 IMP $,$5 A GUA G U G U A G U A U A U A U Growing AA chain W51$*O
  13. 13. recognizes UGA P51$ UGA recoded for Gly (Gracilibacteria) ribosome Woyke et al. Nature 2013.
  14. 14. Microbial Dark Matter Part 2 • Ramunas Stepanauskas • Tanja Woyke • Jonathan Eisen • Duane Moser • Tullis Onstott
  15. 15. Microbial Dark Matter Part 2 • Ramunas Stepanauskas • Tanja Woyke • Jonathan Eisen • Duane Moser • Tullis Onstott
  16. 16. Same Thing Needed for Protein Families A B C Representative Genomes Extract Protein Annotation All v. All BLAST Homology Clustering (MCL) SFams Align Build HMMs HMMs Screen for Homologs New Genomes Extract Protein Annotation Figure 1
  17. 17. Opportunity 2: Methods Development
  18. 18. General Workflow DNA DNADNA Taxa Characters B1 ACTGCACCTATCGTTCG B2 ACTCCACCTATCGTTCG E1 ACTCCAGCTATCGATCG E2 ACTCCAGGTATCGATCG A1 ACCCCAGCTCTCGCTCG A2 ACCCCAGCTCTGGCTCG New1 ACCCCAGCTCTGCCTCG New2 AGGGGAGCTCTGCCTCG
  19. 19. Phylosift DNA DNADNA Taxa Characters B1 ACTGCACCTATCGTTCG B2 ACTCCACCTATCGTTCG E1 ACTCCAGCTATCGATCG E2 ACTCCAGGTATCGATCG A1 ACCCCAGCTCTCGCTCG A2 ACCCCAGCTCTGGCTCG New1 ACCCCAGCTCTGCCTCG New2 AGGGGAGCTCTGCCTCG Input Sequences rRNA workflow protein workflow profile HMMs used to align candidates to reference alignment Taxonomic Summaries parallel option hmmalign multiple alignment LAST fast candidate search pplacer phylogenetic placement LAST fast candidate search LAST fast candidate search search input against references hmmalign multiple alignment hmmalign multiple alignment Infernal multiple alignment LAST fast candidate search 600 bp 600 bp Sample Analysis Comparison Krona plots, Number of reads placed for each marker gene Edge PCA, Tree visualization, Bayes factor tests eachinputsequencescannedagainstbothworkflows
  20. 20. PhyEco Markers DNA DNADNA Taxa Characters B1 ACTGCACCTATCGTTCG B2 ACTCCACCTATCGTTCG E1 ACTCCAGCTATCGATCG E2 ACTCCAGGTATCGATCG A1 ACCCCAGCTCTCGCTCG A2 ACCCCAGCTCTGGCTCG New1 ACCCCAGCTCTGCCTCG New2 AGGGGAGCTCTGCCTCG PhyEco Markers
  21. 21. HiC Crosslinking Sequencing Beitel CW, Froenicke L, Lang JM, Korf IF, Michelmore RW, Eisen JA, Darling AE. (2014) Strain- and plasmid- level deconvolution of a synthetic metagenome by sequencing proximity ligation products. PeerJ 2:e415 http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.415 Table 1 Species alignment fractions. The number of reads aligning to each replicon present in the synthetic microbial community are shown before and after filtering, along with the percent of total constituted by each species. The GC content (“GC”) and restriction site counts (“#R.S.”) of each replicon, species, and strain are shown. Bur1: B. thailandensis chromosome 1. Bur2: B. thailandensis chromosome 2. Lac0: L. brevis chromosome, Lac1: L. brevis plasmid 1, Lac2: L. brevis plasmid 2, Ped: P. pentosaceus, K12: E. coli K12 DH10B, BL21: E. coli BL21. An expanded version of this table can be found in Table S2. Sequence Alignment % of Total Filtered % of aligned Length GC #R.S. Lac0 10,603,204 26.17% 10,269,562 96.85% 2,291,220 0.462 629 Lac1 145,718 0.36% 145,478 99.84% 13,413 0.386 3 Lac2 691,723 1.71% 665,825 96.26% 35,595 0.385 16 Lac 11,440,645 28.23% 11,080,865 96.86% 2,340,228 0.46 648 Ped 2,084,595 5.14% 2,022,870 97.04% 1,832,387 0.373 863 BL21 12,882,177 31.79% 2,676,458 20.78% 4,558,953 0.508 508 K12 9,693,726 23.92% 1,218,281 12.57% 4,686,137 0.507 568 E. coli 22,575,903 55.71% 3,894,739 17.25% 9,245,090 0.51 1076 Bur1 1,886,054 4.65% 1,797,745 95.32% 2,914,771 0.68 144 Bur2 2,536,569 6.26% 2,464,534 97.16% 3,809,201 0.672 225 Bur 4,422,623 10.91% 4,262,279 96.37% 6,723,972 0.68 369 Figure 1 Hi-C insert distribution. The distribution of genomic distances between Hi-C read pairs is shown for read pairs mapping to each chromosome. For each read pair the minimum path length on the circular chromosome was calculated and read pairs separated by less than 1000 bp were discarded. The 2.5 Mb range was divided into 100 bins of equal size and the number of read pairs in each bin was recorded for each chromosome. Bin values for each chromosome were normalized to sum to 1 and plotted. E. coli K12 genome were distributed in a similar manner as previously reported (Fig. 1; (Lieberman-Aiden et al., 2009)). We observed a minor depletion of alignments spanning the linearization point of the E. coli K12 assembly (e.g., near coordinates 0 and 4686137) due to edge eVects induced by BWA treating the sequence as a linear chromosome rather than circular. 10.7717/peerj.415 9/19 Figure 2 Metagenomic Hi-C associations. The log-scaled, normalized number of Hi-C read pairs associating each genomic replicon in the synthetic community is shown as a heat map (see color scale, blue to yellow: low to high normalized, log scaled association rates). Bur1: B. thailandensis chromosome 1. Bur2: B. thailandensis chromosome 2. Lac0: L. brevis chromosome, Lac1: L. brevis plasmid 1, Lac2: L. brevis plasmid 2, Ped: P. pentosaceus, K12: E. coli K12 DH10B, BL21: E. coli BL21. reference assemblies of the members of our synthetic microbial community with the same alignment parameters as were used in the top ranked clustering (described above). We first Figure 3 Contigs associated by Hi-C reads. A graph is drawn with nodes depicting contigs and edges depicting associations between contigs as indicated by aligned Hi-C read pairs, with the count thereof depicted by the weight of edges. Nodes are colored to reflect the species to which they belong (see legend) with node size reflecting contig size. Contigs below 5 kb and edges with weights less than 5 were excluded. Contig associations were normalized for variation in contig size. typically represent the reads and variant sites as a variant graph wherein variant sites are represented as nodes, and sequence reads define edges between variant sites observed in the same read (or read pair). We reasoned that variant graphs constructed from Hi-C data would have much greater connectivity (where connectivity is defined as the mean path length between randomly sampled variant positions) than graphs constructed from mate-pair sequencing data, simply because Hi-C inserts span megabase distances. Such Figure 4 Hi-C contact maps for replicons of Lactobacillus brevis. Contact maps show the number of Hi-C read pairs associating each region of the L. brevis genome. The L. brevis chromosome (Lac0, (A), Chris Beitel @datscimed Aaron Darling @koadman
  22. 22. 12 C, 12 C14 N, 32 S Wilbanks, E.G. et al (2014). Environmental Microbiology Transfer of 34 S from SRB to PSB Lizzy Wilbanks @lizzywilbanks 34S-incorporation Biomass NanoSIMS to Localize Processes
  23. 23. Opportunity 3: Whole Systems Mom The Microbes We Eat PetsBuilt Environment Other People All Taxa
  24. 24. Opportunity 4: Outreach, Training, Community
  25. 25. Opportunity 5: Citizen Science Kitty Microbiome
  26. 26. UCD Microbiome Center Rate This TweetTweet 0 Share 1 2 Everything (or, at least a lot) about Microbiology at UC Davis Posted on May 31, 2014 by Jonathan Eisen So – getting lots of calls and emails and having local meetings with people interested in microbiology at UC Davis. Rather than continuing to answer each person separately I am just going to put everything together on this page. Departments and groups with a major focus on microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics in the College of Biological Sciences Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology in the School of Veterinary Medicine Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the School of Medicine Plant Pathology Department of Pathology in the School of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases in the School of Medicine USDA ARS Crop Pathology and Genetics Group Departments with a lot of people working on microbiology Food Science Technology Viticulture and Enology Graduate Groups with a Major Focus on Microbiology Microbiology Plant Pathology Epidemiology Soils and Biogeochemistry Food Science and Technology Educational Programs and Courses Microbiology Major UC Davis Chapter of ASM Medical Microbiology and Immunology Courses Plant Pathology Courses Microbiology Courses Vetmed: Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology Courses UC Davis iGEM Other related entitites Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory Clinical Laboratory – UC Davis Health System Faculty Studying Host Microbe Interactions Host-Microbe Interactions Retreat Center for Vectorborne Diseases Host-Microbe Systems Biology Core Seminars Emerging Challenges in Microbiology and Immunology Seminars Plant Pathology Seminar Series Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Seminars MIC291 Seminars Individual People / Faculty / Groups with an Emphasis on Something Microbial (I am including people who have expressed interest in microbial related work even if they may not yet be doing much). 1. Jason Adams. Pulmonary and Critical Care, SOM. 2. John Adaska. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 3. Mark Anderson. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 4. Charles Bamforth. Food Science and Technology, CAES. 5. Nicole Baumgarth. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 6. Kendra Baumgartner. Crops Pathology and Genetics Research, USDA ARS. 7. Andreas Baumler. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 8. Danielle Barille. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 9. Jacqueline Barlow. 10. Peter Barry. 11. Ramie Begum. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 12. Alison Berry. Plant Sciences, CAES. 13. Alan Bennett, Plant Sciences, CAES. 14. Charles Bevins. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 15. Linda Bisson, Viticulture and Enology. 16. David Block, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, COE. 17. Dori Borjesson. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 18. Richard Bostock. Plant Pathology. CAES. 19. Kyria Boundary-Mills. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 20. Walter Boyce. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 21. C. Titus Brown. Population, Health, and Reproduction, SVM. 22. Greg Browne. Crops Pathology and Genetics Research, USDA ARS. 23. Barbara Byrne. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 24. Silvia Carrasco 25. Claire Casteel. Plant Pathology. CAES. 26. Kristen Clothier. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 27. Gitta Coaker. Plant Pathology. CAES. 28. Sean Collins. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 29. Pat Conrad. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 30. Doug Cook. Plant Pathology. CAES. 31. Abhaya Dandekar. Plant Sciences. CAES. 32. Satya Dandekar. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine 33. Michael Davis. Plant Pathology. CAES. 34. Scott Dawson. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 35. Jason DeJong. Civil and Environmental Engineering. 36. Kathy DeRiemer. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine 37. Savithram Dinesh-Kumar. Plant Biology. CBS. 38. Jonathan Eisen. Evolution and Ecology, CBS. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 39. Lynn Epstein. Plant Pathology. CAES. 40. Marc Facciotti. Biomedical Engineering. SOE. 41. Bryce Falk. Plant Pathology. CAES. 42. Julia Fan. Biological and Agricultural Engineering. SOE. 43. Janet Foley. Medicine Epidemiology. SVM. 44. Heather Fritz. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 45. Amelie Gaudin, Plant Sciences, 46. Angie Gelli. Pharmacology. SOM. 47. Michael George. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 48. J. Bruce German. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 49. Laurel Gershwin. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 50. M. Eric Gershwin. Rheumatology. SOM. 51. Thomas R. Gordon. Plant Pathology. CAES. 52. W. Douglas Gubler. Plant Pathology. CAES. 53. Linda Harris. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 54. Dennis J Hartigan. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 55. Volkmar Heinrich. Biomedical Engineering. SOE. 56. Wolf-Dietrich Heyer. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 57. James Hildreth. Molecular and Cellular Biology. CBS. 58. Neil Hunter. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 59. Michele Igo. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 60. Louise Jackson. Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources. 61. Kevin Keel. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 62. Hailu Kinde. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 63. Bruce C. Kirkpatrick. Plant Pathology. CAES. 64. Steve Kowalczykowski. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 65. Dan Kluepfel. Crops Pathology and Genetics Research, USDA ARS. 66. John Labavitch. Plant Sciences. CAES. 67. Michael Lairmore. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 68. Gregory Lanzaro. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 69. Rance LeFebvre. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 70. Patrick Leung. Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. SOM. 71. Johan Leveau. Plant Pathology. CAES. 72. Michael Liebowitz. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 73. Su-Ju Lin. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS 74. Bo Liu. Plant Biology. CBS. 75. Frank Loge. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SOE. 76. Paul Luciw. Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. SOM. 77. Shirley Luckhart. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 78. N. James MacLachlan. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 79. Elizabeth Maga. Animal Sciences. 80. Maria Marco. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 81. Neil McRoberts. Plant Pathology. CAES. 82. Stephen Mcsorley. 83. Asli Mete. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 84. Jack Meeks. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 85. Themis Michailides. 86. Richard Michelmore. 87. Christopher J. Miller. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 88. Woutrina A. Miller. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 89. David Mills. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 90. Robert Moeller. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 91. Brian Murphy. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 92. Lorena Navarro. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 93. Doug Nelson. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 94. Edward Panacek. Emergency Medicine. SOM. 95. Becky Parales. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 96. Demosthenes Pappagianis. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 97. Niels Pedersen. Medicine and Epidemiology, SVM. 98. Patricia Pesavento. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 99. Chris Polage. Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. SOM 100. Chester Price. 101. Katherine Ralston, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, CBS 102. William Reisen. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 103. David Rizzo. Plant Pathology. CAES. 104. Jorge Rodrigues, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources. 105. Pamela Ronald. 106. Jeff Ross-Ibarra. Plant Sciences. 107. John Roth. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 108. Sumathi Sankaran. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 109. Michael Savageau. Biomedical Engineering. SOE. 110. Jeffrey L. Scott. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 111. Thomas W. Scott. Entomology. 112. Kate Scow. Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources. 113. Barbara Shacklett. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 114. Kaz Shiozaki. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 115. Christopher Simmons. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 116. Mitch Singer. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 117. Jay Solnick. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 118. Athena Soulika. Dermatology. SOM. 119. Ellen E. Sparger. 120. Charles Stephensen. Immunity and Disease Prevention Research Unit. USDA ARS. 121. Ioannis (Yiannis) Stergiopoulos. Plant Pathology. CAES. 122. Valley Stewart. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. 123. Jeffrey Stott. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 124. Sharon Strauss. Evolution and Ecology, CBS. 125. Dawn Y Sumner. Earth and Planetary Sciences. 126. Mysore Sudarshana. Plant Pathology. CAES. 127. Venketesan Sundaresan, Plant Biology, CBS. 128. Michael Syvanen. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 129. Ilias Tagkopoulos. Computer Science. SOE. 130. George Thompson. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 131. Jose Torres. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 132. Renee Tsolis. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 133. Michael Turelli. Evolution and Ecology, CBS. 134. Diane Ullman. Entomology and Nematology. 135. Mark Underwood. Pediatrics. SOM. 136. Francisco Uzal. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 137. Neal Van Alfen. Plant Pathology. CAES. 138. Mariel Vasquez. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics. CBS. Also in Mathematics. 139. Bart Weimer. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM. 140. Andrew Whitehead. 141. Carl Winter. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 142. Leslie Woods. Pathology, Microbiology Immunology, SVM 143. Stefan Wuertz. Civil and Environmental Engineering. SOE. 144. Tilahun Yilma. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, SOM. 145. Glenn Young. Food Science and Technology. CAES. 146. Ruihong Zhang. Biological and Agricultural Engineering. SOE. 147. Huaijun Zhou. Animal Science. 148. Xiangdong Zhu. Physics. 149. Angela Zivcovik. Food Science and Technology. CAES. Rate this: Share this: Jonathan Eisen's Lab All microbes, all the time. May the microbes be ever in your favor. 0ShareShare ShareShare 30 Press This Email More Reblog Like Be the first to like this.   Related Assistant Professor Position in #Microbiology at UC Berkeley Register for the 2013 CHAMMP Symposium at #UCDavis - keynote speaker Jeffrey Gordon Register for the 2013 CHAMMP Symposium at UC Davis w/ keynote by Jeffrey Gordon SVMSOM CA
 ES CBS COE LAW NURSI NG LS GSM UCD MICRO- BIOMES NEW TECH UCD MICRO- BIOMES INFOR MATICS TRAIN ING CITIZEN SCIENCE POLICYELSI TRANSLA TION ARTS
  27. 27. Acknowledgements DOE JGI Sloan GBMF NSF DHS DARPA Aaron Darling
 Lizzy Wilbanks Jenna Lang Russell Neches Rob Knight Jack Gilbert Tanja Woyke Rob Dunn Katie Pollard Jessica Green Darlene Cavalier Eddy RubinWendy Brown Dongying Wu Phil Hugenholtz DSMZ Sundar Srijak Bhatnagar David Coil Alex Alexiev Hannah Holland-Moritz Holly Bik John Zhang Holly Menninger Guillaume Jospin David Lang Cassie Ettinger Tim HarkinsJennifer Gardy Holly Ganz

×