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BIS2C_2020. Lecture 23 Fungi Part 2

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Slides for BIS2C 2020 at UC Davis by Jonathan Eisen

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BIS2C_2020. Lecture 23 Fungi Part 2

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 BIS2C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2020 Lecture 23: Fungi Part 2 Prof. Jonathan Eisen
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 !Lecture 22: Fungi 1 !Lecture 23: Fungi 2 !Midterm 2 Lecture 23 Context
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Stubble Rosegill, West Sacramento (Basidiomycota)
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Parasola (Basidiomycota) - Yolo Bypass
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Inky Cap
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Teloschistaceae (Ascomycota), UC Davis
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Shelf Fungus
  8. 8. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  9. 9. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Important: Midterm 2 Details
  10. 10. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Important: Midterm 2 Details • Exam content !Lectures 13-23 !~73% material from Dr. Moore and ~27% from Dr. Eisen • Logistics !Date: Monday 5/11 !Exam available: 9:00 am - 3:00 pm !Time limit: 100 minutes !Your exam will be automatically submitted after 100 minutes or at 3pm - whichever comes first. !If you need to take the exam during the alternate time (6:00 pm - 9:00 pm), you must submit the form by 5 pm on Saturday 5/9. • Internet issues !What should I do if my internet crashes during the exam? !email Dr. Benn (gkbenn@ucdavis.edu) or call the emergency number IMMEDIATELY. !Your time is still running while the internet is disconnected !If you contact us right away we can extend your time
  11. 11. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Learning Goals • Understand the main features of growth, cellular structures and life cycles seen in fungi • Understand the transitions between policy states seen in different groups of fungi and how those come about (e.g., meiosis, fertilization, plasmogamy, etc) • Understand examples of biological diversity of fungi especially symbioses
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Previous Lecture
  13. 13. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi Share Many Features in Common Fungal Key Innovations
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 A Phylogeny of the Fungi
  15. 15. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Many fungi are multicellular • Hyphae cell walls have chitin. • Hyphae allow high surface area to volume ratio. Aids in absorption but susceptible to drying. • Hyphae with incomplete cross walls are septate. • Hyphae without septa are coenocytic. • Collections of hyphae = mycelia Fruiting Body Vegetative mycelia Hyphae
  16. 16. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids Flagellated gametes Flagellated spores
  17. 17. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization Has Two Key Events
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Gamos: Greek for marriage Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events nn
  19. 19. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Gamos: Greek for marriage Plasma (i.e., plasma membrane) Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn Plasmogamy
  20. 20. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Gamos: Greek for marriage Plasma (i.e., plasma membrane) Karyo (i.e. eukaryote = nucleus) Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn Plasmogamy Karyogamy Key Fungal Innovation: Decoupling of Plasmogamy and Karyogamy
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 23 Outline • Fungi !Diversity of life cycles continued !Symbioses
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 23 Outline • Fungi !Diversity of life cycles continued !Symbioses
  24. 24. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  25. 25. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  26. 26. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  27. 27. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  28. 28. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  30. 30. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  31. 31. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Fusion of cells Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  32. 32. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Fusion of nuclei Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  33. 33. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  34. 34. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  35. 35. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygospore Fungi Polykaryotic (n,n,n)
  36. 36. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygosporangium
  37. 37. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n n n n n n n Zygospore Fungi: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy - +
  38. 38. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fusion of cells Plasmogamy n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Zygospore Fungi: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy Zygosporangium - + Can Sit in this State for a Long Time
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Plasmogamy Karyogamy n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n nn n n n n n n Zygospore Fungi: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy Zygosporangium - + Zygospore Can Sit in this State for a Long Time
  40. 40. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygomycota Examples
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Zygomycota Examples Rhizopus oligosporus used to make tempeh Rhizopus stolonifer: black bread mold May be most common fungus in the world Rhizopus stolonifer: also causes grape rot Zygomycosis - infections caused by Zygospore fungi
  42. 42. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Major Innovation - Dikaryon Stage
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Dikarya: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy
  44. 44. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Haploid Gametes Dikarya: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy
  45. 45. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fusion of cells Haploid Gametes Dikarya: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy n n Plasmogamy
  46. 46. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Haploid Gametes Zygote Dikarya: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy n n nn Plasmogamy Karyogamy
  47. 47. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Haploid Gametes Zygote Dikarya: Plasmogamy Precedes Karyogamy n n nn Plasmogamy KaryogamyDikaryon In dikarya, the dikaryon life stage (n+n) expanded: Two distinct haploid nuclei inside one cell or hyphae
  48. 48. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization Comes in Many Forms • Not just fungi that have evolved alternatives to the “standard” model of fertilization
  49. 49. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slides by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Major Innovation - Dikaryon Stage
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiomycota
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  54. 54. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  55. 55. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  57. 57. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  58. 58. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Gills lined with basidia Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  61. 61. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Fertilization Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  62. 62. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating type 1 Mating type 2 Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Fertilization Meiosis Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota (Club Fungi): Life Cycle
  63. 63. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Basidiomycota: Club Fungi Fly Agaric Mushroom Bracket fungus
  64. 64. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Other Examples of Basidiomycota
  65. 65. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Other Examples of Basidiomycota Fairy Circle Mushrooms Agaricus Stinkhorn
  66. 66. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fruiting Body Development in Dikarya
  67. 67. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Basidiomycota example: puffball
  68. 68. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
  69. 69. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle
  70. 70. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating structure Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle
  71. 71. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Mating structure Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle
  72. 72. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Mating structure Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle
  73. 73. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n)
  74. 74. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n)
  75. 75. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n)
  76. 76. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  77. 77. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  78. 78. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Meiosis Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  79. 79. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Ascospores Meiosis Mitosis Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Ascus Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  80. 80. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Ascospores Meiosis Mitosis Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Ascus Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  81. 81. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Ascospores Ascospores (n) Meiosis Mitosis Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Ascus Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  82. 82. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Ascospores Ascospores (n) Germinating ascospores (n) Meiosis Mitosis Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Ascus Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  83. 83. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Ascospores Ascospores (n) Germinating ascospores (n) Meiosis Mitosis Karyogamy Fertilization Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Fused nuclei (zygote) Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type Ascomycota (Sac Fungi): Life Cycle Haploid hyphae (n) Ascus Fruiting bodies are made up of dikaryotic mycelia.
  84. 84. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Examples True MorelsCup Fungi
  85. 85. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Other Examples of Ascomycota 39 Scarlet cup truffles Lichen fungi Cheese Molds
  86. 86. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Dikaryon Life Cycle Features
  87. 87. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Dikaryon Life Cycle Features • Ploidy features • No gamete cells, only gamete nuclei • Zygote is the only true diploid cell • Hyphae are either haploid (n) or dikaryotic (n + n) • Duration spent in dikaryon stage varies • Short lived in most Ascomycota • Longer lived in most Basidiomycota • Single celled species • Many in each group (e.g., S. cerevisiae) • Lost multicellularity and have reduced versions of life cycles
  88. 88. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Advantages of Plasmogamy Preceding Karyogamy?
  89. 89. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Advantages of Plasmogamy Preceding Karyogamy? • Benefits of decoupling plasmogamy and karyogamy?
  90. 90. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Advantages of Plasmogamy Preceding Karyogamy? • Benefits of decoupling plasmogamy and karyogamy? • Theory 1: Allows massive, coordinated procession to meiosis
  91. 91. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Advantages of Plasmogamy Preceding Karyogamy? • Benefits of decoupling plasmogamy and karyogamy? • Theory 1: Allows massive, coordinated procession to meiosis • Theory 2: Limits time spent in diploid stage which may protect from spread of parasites
  92. 92. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Advantages of Plasmogamy Preceding Karyogamy? • Benefits of decoupling plasmogamy and karyogamy? • Theory 1: Allows massive, coordinated procession to meiosis • Theory 2: Limits time spent in diploid stage which may protect from spread of parasites • Theory 3: Allows physical spacing of gene expression
  93. 93. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 23 Outline • Fungi !Diversity of life cycles continued !Symbioses
  94. 94. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Many Parasitic Fungi Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + -
  95. 95. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Examples
  96. 96. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Examples • Microsporidia: all species are parasitic !Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Microsporidia) (HIV associated) • Ascomycota & Basidiomycota include many plant, animal, human pathogens !Candida albicans (Ascomycota) (yeast infections) !Coccidiodes immitis (Ascomycota) (Central Valley fever)
  97. 97. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Many Fungal Pathogens
  98. 98. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids and Amphibian Die Off !Many chytrids are parasitic !Flagellated spores and gametes allow them to spread more readily in aquatic and marine habitats !Contributing to global die off of amphibians
  99. 99. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Probiotics for Frogs? Sonia Ghose Marina De León Sonia Ghose & Jackie Colin
  100. 100. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Parasitic Fungi Example: Zombie Ants
  101. 101. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Classes of symbiosis Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + -
  102. 102. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 The fungal microbiome = the MYCO-biome
  103. 103. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Mutualistic Fungi Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + -
  104. 104. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Mycorrhizal Associations • Mycorrhizae —- fungi associated with roots of plants • Glucose from plant partner is primary energy source for fungus. • Provide plants w/ increased water and mineral uptake via massive increase in surface area
  105. 105. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lichens • Composed of a fungus and photosynthetic microorganism(s) (algae and/or cyanobacteria) • Survive harsh environments • ~ 30,000 species
  106. 106. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lichen Anatomy
  107. 107. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 !Lecture 22: Fungi 1 !Lecture 23: Fungi 2 !Midterm 2 Lecture 23 Context
  108. 108. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Important: Midterm 2 Details • Exam content !Lectures 13-23 !~73% material from Dr. Moore and ~27% from Dr. Eisen • Logistics !Date: Monday 5/11 !Exam available: 9:00 am - 3:00 pm !Time limit: 100 minutes !Your exam will be automatically submitted after 100 minutes, or at 3:00 pm, whichever comes first. !If you need to take the exam during the alternate time (6:00 pm - 9:00 pm), you must submit the form by 5 pm on Saturday 5/9. • Internet issues !What should I do if my internet crashes during the exam? !email Dr. Benn (gkbenn@ucdavis.edu) or call the emergency number IMMEDIATELY. !Your time is still running while the internet is disconnected !If you contact us right away we can extend your time
  109. 109. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Microsporidia
  110. 110. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 May 7, 2020 New York Times …

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