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EVOLUTION	
  OF	
  THE	
  THERMAL	
  NICHE	
  	
  
AND	
  ITS	
  IMPACT	
  ON	
  BIODIVERSITY	
  PATTERNS	
  
IN	
  SEAWEE...
h;p://www.bio-­‐oracle.ugent.be	
  
Bio-­‐ORACLE	
  
Ocean	
  Rasters	
  for	
  Analysis	
  of	
  
Climate	
  and	
  Envir...
algal	
  
collecLons	
  
environmental	
  
datasets:	
  
Bio-­‐ORACLE	
  
algal	
  
collecLons	
  
environmental	
  
datasets:	
  
Bio-­‐ORACLE	
  
mulL-­‐gene	
  
alignment	
  
DNA	
  
sequencing...
algal	
  
collecLons	
  
environmental	
  
datasets:	
  
Bio-­‐ORACLE	
  
mulL-­‐gene	
  
alignment	
  
DNA	
  
sequencing...
algal	
  
collecLons	
  
environmental	
  
datasets:	
  
Bio-­‐ORACLE	
  
mulL-­‐gene	
  
alignment	
  
DNA	
  
sequencing...
species	
  
tree	
  
environmental	
  
affiniLes	
  
of	
  species	
  
species	
  
tree	
  
environmental	
  
affiniLes	
  
of	
  species	
  
diversificaLon	
  
models	
  
Result:	
  
speciaLon-­‐...
species	
  
tree	
  
environmental	
  
affiniLes	
  
of	
  species	
  
diversificaLon	
  
models	
  
Result:	
  
speciaLon-­‐...
species	
  
tree	
  
environmental	
  
affiniLes	
  
of	
  species	
  
diversificaLon	
  
models	
  
Result:	
  
speciaLon-­‐...
Halimeda	
  –	
  species	
  diversity	
  map	
  
map	
  by	
  Tom	
  Schils	
  
SST	
  affiniLes	
  modeled	
  along	
  tree	
  
C1	
   C2	
   C3	
   C4	
   C5	
  
Verbruggen	
  et	
  al.	
  (2009)	
  Glo...
How	
  does	
  evolvability	
  
of	
  thermal	
  niches	
  come	
  about?	
  
Marcelino	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Halimeda	
  –	
  microhabitat	
  evoluLon	
  
Exposed	
  microhabitat	
   S...
Marcelino	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Microhabitat	
  specializaLon	
  as	
  
exaptaLon	
  for	
  macroecological...
Can	
  niche	
  evoluLon	
  explain	
  
geographical	
  pa;erns	
  of	
  diversity?	
  
low
high
Ti;ensor	
  et	
  al.	
  (2010)	
  Nature	
  466:	
  1098-­‐1107	
  	
  	
  —	
  	
  	
  Jablonski	
  et	
  al.	
...
Kerswell	
  (2006)	
  Ecology	
  10:	
  2479-­‐2488	
  
Bimodal	
  laLtudinal	
  diversity	
  pa;ern	
  
Highest	
  divers...
LDG	
  and	
  diversificaLon	
  
sea	
  surface	
  temperature	
  
diversificaLon	
  
diversificaLon	
  
cold	
   warm	
  
se...
Codium	
  -­‐	
  Species	
  diversity	
  map	
  
map	
  by	
  Tom	
  Schils	
  
Codium	
  –	
  evoluLon	
  of	
  SST	
  affiniLes	
  
C1	
   C2	
   C3	
  
Verbruggen	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
λ	
  =	
  constant	
  
SST	
  affinity	
  of	
  lineage	
  
Codium	
  –	
  diversificaLon	
  and	
  SST	
  
2,500.8	
  
ΔAIC	...
λ	
  =	
  constant	
  λ	
  =	
  hump	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  
diversificaLon	
  
SST	
  affinity	
  of	
  lineage	
   SST	
  affini...
λ	
  =	
  sigmoid	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  λ	
  =	
  constant	
  λ	
  =	
  hump	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  
diversificaLon	
  
SST	
  a...
Codium	
  –	
  temperate	
  flora	
  is	
  old	
  
C1	
   C2	
   C3	
  
Verbruggen	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Dictyota	
  –	
  species	
  diversity	
  map	
  
map	
  by	
  Tom	
  Schils	
  
λ	
  =	
  constant	
  
λ	
  =	
  hump	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  
diversificaLon	
  
SST	
  affinity	
  of	
  lineage	
  
Dictyota	
...
Tyberghein	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
DiversificaLon	
  is	
  funcLon	
  
of	
  niche	
  evolvability	
  
Tyberghein	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Parapatric	
  speciaLon	
  along	
  
laLtudinal	
  temperature	
  gradient	
  
Tyberghein	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished...
EvoluLonary	
  dynamics	
  and	
  the	
  thermal	
  niche	
  
1.  Niche	
  shi`s	
  	
  vs.	
  niche	
  conservaLsm	
  
2....
PerspecLves	
  
•  Lp	
  of	
  the	
  iceberg	
  
•  scale	
  up:	
  genera	
  >	
  orders	
  
(Bryopsidales,	
  Nemaliale...
Collectors:	
  
Rob	
  Anderson	
  
Elizabeth	
  Bandeira	
  
John	
  Bolton	
  
Francis	
  Bunker	
  
Olivier	
  Dargent	...
Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds
Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds
Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds
Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds
Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds
Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds
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Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds

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The thermal niche of seaweed species is known to have a strong influence on their distribution ranges. In turn, geographical distributions determine patterns of species richness across the globe. But the thermal niche is not a static feature over evolutionary timescales. Our goal is to incorporate the evolutionary dynamics of thermal niches into assessments of global patterns of species richness. Using evolutionary modeling approaches in a phylogenetic context for three seaweed genera, we show that the thermal niche evolves at different rates in different lineages, and illustrate relationships between microhabitat preferences and rates of thermal niche evolution. We show that niche evolution promotes the diversification of taxa by different mechanisms and reveal its impact on global diversity patterns. In summary, our results show that the thermal niche evolves in a highly taxon-specific manner and that it has a clear impact on the species richness patterns of those taxa.

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Evolution of the thermal niche and its impact on biodiversity patterns in seaweeds

  1. 1. EVOLUTION  OF  THE  THERMAL  NICHE     AND  ITS  IMPACT  ON  BIODIVERSITY  PATTERNS   IN  SEAWEEDS     Heroen  Verbruggen   Vanessa  Marcelino   Lennert  Tyberghein   Olivier  De  Clerck  
  2. 2. h;p://www.bio-­‐oracle.ugent.be   Bio-­‐ORACLE   Ocean  Rasters  for  Analysis  of   Climate  and  Environment   Tyberghein  et  al.  (2012)  Global  Ecol.  Biogeogr.  21:  272-­‐281  
  3. 3. algal   collecLons   environmental   datasets:   Bio-­‐ORACLE  
  4. 4. algal   collecLons   environmental   datasets:   Bio-­‐ORACLE   mulL-­‐gene   alignment   DNA   sequencing   species   tree   phylogeneLc   inference  
  5. 5. algal   collecLons   environmental   datasets:   Bio-­‐ORACLE   mulL-­‐gene   alignment   DNA   sequencing   species   tree   phylogeneLc   inference   geographic   coordinates   accurate   idenLficaLons   georeferencing   DNA   barcoding  
  6. 6. algal   collecLons   environmental   datasets:   Bio-­‐ORACLE   mulL-­‐gene   alignment   DNA   sequencing   species   tree   phylogeneLc   inference   geographic   coordinates   accurate   idenLficaLons   environmental   affiniLes   of  species   georeferencing   DNA   barcoding   GIS  data   extracLon  
  7. 7. species   tree   environmental   affiniLes   of  species  
  8. 8. species   tree   environmental   affiniLes   of  species   diversificaLon   models   Result:   speciaLon-­‐exLncLon   dynamics  
  9. 9. species   tree   environmental   affiniLes   of  species   diversificaLon   models   Result:   speciaLon-­‐exLncLon   dynamics   Result:   evoluLonary  changes  in   environmental  affiniLes   trait  evoluLon   models  
  10. 10. species   tree   environmental   affiniLes   of  species   diversificaLon   models   Result:   speciaLon-­‐exLncLon   dynamics   Result:   evoluLonary  changes  in   environmental  affiniLes   Result:   environmental  correlates   of  speciaLon-­‐exLncLon   diversificaLon   models   trait  evoluLon   models  
  11. 11. Halimeda  –  species  diversity  map   map  by  Tom  Schils  
  12. 12. SST  affiniLes  modeled  along  tree   C1   C2   C3   C4   C5   Verbruggen  et  al.  (2009)  Global  Ecol.  Biogeogr.  18:  393-­‐405  
  13. 13. How  does  evolvability   of  thermal  niches  come  about?  
  14. 14. Marcelino  et  al.  –  unpublished   Halimeda  –  microhabitat  evoluLon   Exposed  microhabitat   Sheltered  microhabitat  
  15. 15. Marcelino  et  al.  –  unpublished   Microhabitat  specializaLon  as   exaptaLon  for  macroecological  shi`s   sheltered   exposed  
  16. 16. Can  niche  evoluLon  explain   geographical  pa;erns  of  diversity?  
  17. 17. low high Ti;ensor  et  al.  (2010)  Nature  466:  1098-­‐1107      —      Jablonski  et  al.  (2006)  Science  314:  102-­‐106   The  notorious  LDG   Decreasing  species  diversity  from  tropics  to  poles   Many,  many,  MANY  explanaLons  proposed     EvoluLonary  perspecLve:  species  turnover  
  18. 18. Kerswell  (2006)  Ecology  10:  2479-­‐2488   Bimodal  laLtudinal  diversity  pa;ern   Highest  diversity  in  temperate  regions   Do  the  same  evoluLonary  processes  hold?   …but  for  seaweeds  
  19. 19. LDG  and  diversificaLon   sea  surface  temperature   diversificaLon   diversificaLon   cold   warm   sea  surface  temperature   cold   warm  int.   int.   cold   int.   warm   int.   cold   cold   int.   warm   int.   cold   λ  =  sigmoid  (  SST  )   λ  =  hump  (  SST  )  
  20. 20. Codium  -­‐  Species  diversity  map   map  by  Tom  Schils  
  21. 21. Codium  –  evoluLon  of  SST  affiniLes   C1   C2   C3   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  22. 22. λ  =  constant   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Codium  –  diversificaLon  and  SST   2,500.8   ΔAIC  =  0   diversificaLon   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished   AIC  
  23. 23. λ  =  constant  λ  =  hump  (  SST  )   diversificaLon   SST  affinity  of  lineage   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Codium  –  diversificaLon  and  SST   2,500.8  2,485.1  AIC   ΔAIC  =  0  ΔAIC  =  –15.7   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  24. 24. λ  =  sigmoid  (  SST  )  λ  =  constant  λ  =  hump  (  SST  )   diversificaLon   SST  affinity  of  lineage   SST  affinity  of  lineage   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Codium  –  diversificaLon  and  SST   2,500.8   2,482.5  2,485.1  AIC   ΔAIC  =  0  ΔAIC  =  –15.7   ΔAIC  =  –18.3   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  25. 25. Codium  –  temperate  flora  is  old   C1   C2   C3   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  26. 26. Dictyota  –  species  diversity  map   map  by  Tom  Schils  
  27. 27. λ  =  constant   λ  =  hump  (  SST  )   diversificaLon   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Dictyota  –  diversificaLon  and  SST   AIC  =  1,533.2   ΔAIC  =  0   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished   AIC  =  1,517.7   ΔAIC  =  –15.5  
  28. 28. Tyberghein  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  29. 29. DiversificaLon  is  funcLon   of  niche  evolvability   Tyberghein  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  30. 30. Parapatric  speciaLon  along   laLtudinal  temperature  gradient   Tyberghein  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  31. 31. EvoluLonary  dynamics  and  the  thermal  niche   1.  Niche  shi`s    vs.  niche  conservaLsm   2.  Evolvability  and  the  microhabitat   3.  DiversificaLon  relates  to  SST   4.  DiversificaLon  relates  to  evolvability    
  32. 32. PerspecLves   •  Lp  of  the  iceberg   •  scale  up:  genera  >  orders   (Bryopsidales,  Nemaliales,  Dictyotales,  Fucales,  Laurencia  complex)   •  go  wide:  genomic  &  physiological  features   •  postAToLomics  
  33. 33. Collectors:   Rob  Anderson   Elizabeth  Bandeira   John  Bolton   Francis  Bunker   Olivier  Dargent   Laury  Dijoux   Kya;  Dixon   Rainbo  Dixon       Stefano  Draisma   Cindy  Fernandez   Suzanne  Fredericq   Wilson  Freshwater   Fred  Gurgel   John  Huisman   Lisa  Kirkendale   Gerry  Kra`       Chris  Lane   Line  Le  Gall   Diane  Li;ler   Mark  Li;ler   Lydiane  Mapo   Frederic  Mineur   Klaas  Pauly   Claude  Payri       Willem  P.v.Reine   Craig  Schneider   Gary  Saunders   Thomas  Sauvage   Tom  Schils   Heather  Spalding   John  West   …  many  others  …   Collaborators:   Sofie  D’hondt   Chris  Drake   Nick  Eloot   Wiebe  Kooistra   Frederik  Leliaert   Diane  Li;ler   Mark  Li;ler   Steve  LoDuca       Chris  Maggs   Antoine  N'Yeurt   FaLma  Oliveira   Mariana  Oliveira   Claude  Payri   Gary  Saunders   Thomas  Sauvage   Tom  Schils       Satoshi  Shimada   Thomas  Silberfeld   Heather  Spalding   Frederique  Steen   Ana  Tronholm   Christophe  Viera   Brian  Wysor   Rick  Zechman  

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