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HEROEN VERBRUGGEN, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE
Talk	
  contents	
  
Niche	
  evolu1on	
  
+	
  impact	
  on	
  biodiversity	
  
Limestone-­‐boring	
  algae	
  
Vanessa	
  Marcelino	
  Lennert	
  Tyberghein	
   Joana	
  Costa	
  
Niche	
  Evolu,on	
  
Boring	
  Algae	
  
Zachos	
  et	
  al.	
  2008.	
  Nature	
  451:	
  279	
  
Evolu1on	
  of	
  clima1c	
  niches	
  –	
  context	
  
Global	
...
Bio-­‐ORACLE	
  
Tyberghein	
  et	
  al.	
  (2012)	
  Glob	
  Ecol	
  Biogeogr	
  21:	
  272	
  
Halimeda	
  –	
  species	
  diversity	
  map	
  
map	
  by	
  Tom	
  Schils	
  
SST	
  affini1es	
  modeled	
  along	
  tree	
  
C1	
   C2	
   C3	
   C4	
   C5	
  
Verbruggen	
  et	
  al.	
  (2009)	
  Glo...
How	
  does	
  evolvability	
  
of	
  thermal	
  niches	
  come	
  about?	
  
Marcelino	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Halimeda	
  –	
  microhabitat	
  evolu1on	
  
Exposed	
  microhabitat	
   S...
Marcelino	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Microhabitat	
  specializa1on	
  as	
  
exapta1on	
  for	
  macroecological...
Can	
  niche	
  evolu1on	
  explain	
  
geographical	
  pa^erns	
  of	
  diversity?	
  
low
high
Ti^ensor	
  et	
  al.	
  (2010)	
  Nature	
  466:	
  1098-­‐1107	
  	
  	
  —	
  	
  	
  Jablonski	
  et	
  al.	
...
Kerswell	
  (2006)	
  Ecology	
  10:	
  2479-­‐2488	
  
Bimodal	
  la1tudinal	
  diversity	
  pa^ern	
  
Highest	
  divers...
LDG	
  and	
  diversifica1on	
  
sea	
  surface	
  temperature	
  
diversifica1on	
  
diversifica1on	
  
cold	
   warm	
  
se...
Codium	
  -­‐	
  Species	
  diversity	
  map	
  
map	
  by	
  Tom	
  Schils	
  
Codium	
  –	
  evolu1on	
  of	
  SST	
  affini1es	
  
C1	
   C2	
   C3	
  
Verbruggen	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
λ	
  =	
  constant	
  
SST	
  affinity	
  of	
  lineage	
  
Codium	
  –	
  diversifica1on	
  and	
  SST	
  
2,500.8	
  
ΔAIC	...
λ	
  =	
  constant	
  λ	
  =	
  hump	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  
diversifica1on	
  
SST	
  affinity	
  of	
  lineage	
   SST	
  affini...
λ	
  =	
  sigmoid	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  λ	
  =	
  constant	
  λ	
  =	
  hump	
  (	
  SST	
  )	
  
diversifica1on	
  
SST	
  a...
Codium	
  –	
  temperate	
  flora	
  is	
  old	
  
C1	
   C2	
   C3	
  
Verbruggen	
  et	
  al.	
  –	
  unpublished	
  
Conclusions	
  and	
  perspec1ves	
  
•  Conclusions	
  so	
  far:	
  
–  Niche	
  shi]s	
  vs.	
  niche	
  conserva1sm	
 ...
Limestone-­‐boring	
  algae	
  
Verbruggen	
  &	
  Tribollet.	
  2011.	
  Curr.	
  Biol.	
  21:	
  R876	
  
Boring	
  algae:	
  What	
  are	
  they?	
  
-­‐  Common	
  in	
  stony	
  corals	
  skeletons	
  
	
  
-­‐  Underneath	
 ...
Boring	
  algae:	
  What	
  do	
  they	
  do?	
  
-­‐  Bioerosion	
  
	
  Tribollet.	
  Current	
  Developments	
  in	
  B...
Boring	
  algae:	
  biodiversity	
  
Taxonomy:	
  5	
  Ostreobium	
  species	
  
	
  
	
  O.	
  constrictum	
  
	
  O.	
  ...
Problem	
  &	
  Goals	
  
•  Problem:	
  
– Unrecognized	
  biodiversity	
  
– Are	
  they	
  equivalent?	
  
•  Goals:	
 ...
Environmental	
  sequencing	
  approach	
  
Proof	
  of	
  concept	
  study:	
  
	
  
3	
  locali1es	
  =>	
  Guam,	
  Mar...
Environmental	
  sequencing	
  approach	
  
Quality	
  filtering	
  
Opera1onal	
  Taxonomic	
  Units	
  (OTUs) 	
  	
  
As...
What's	
  in	
  there?	
  	
  Results	
  for	
  UPA	
  
At	
  90%	
  similarity	
  (≈	
  genus	
  level):	
  
	
  608	
  O...
How	
  dominant	
  are	
  they?	
  
Unknown
Rhodophytes
Chlorophytes
Cyanobacteria
Other Eukaryotes
Propor,on	
  of	
  rea...
Correlates	
  of	
  community	
  composi1on	
  
Principal	
  Coordinates	
  Analysis	
  (PCoA)	
  
on	
  UniFrac	
  distan...
Correlates	
  of	
  community	
  composi1on	
  
Pillar	
  shape	
  
Plate	
  shape	
  
PCoA	
  plot	
  on	
  UniFrac	
  di...
Conclusions	
  and	
  perspec1ves	
  
•  Huge	
  unknown	
  biodiversity	
  of	
  boring	
  algae	
  
species	
  	
  ➟	
  ...
More	
  perspec1ves	
  
Genome	
  biology	
   Photobiology	
   Bioerosion	
  
Vanessa	
  Marcelino	
  Lennert	
  Tyberghein	
   Joana	
  Costa	
  
Niche	
  Evolu,on	
  
Boring	
  Algae	
  
Collectors:	
  
Rob	
  Anderson	
  
Elizabeth	
  Bandeira	
  
John	
  Bolton	
  
Francis	
  Bunker	
  
Olivier	
  Dargent	...
Evolution of environmental traits in reef algae
Evolution of environmental traits in reef algae
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Evolution of environmental traits in reef algae

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Seminar abstract: I will be talking about two ongoing research projects in my laboratory: (1) evolution of thermal niches in seaweeds, (2) biodiversity of endolithic algae in coral skeletons and its relationship with the environment. Using evolutionary models in an explicit phylogenetic framework, patterns of evolution in environmental traits such as the sea surface temperature (SST) affinities of species can be studied. Based on case studies in the green algae Codium and Halimeda, it is shown that lineages behave differently when it comes to their evolution of SST affinities, and that there is a strong correlation between the evolution of SST affinities and rates of species diversification. For the second part of the talk, I will focus on our recent work on environmental sequencing of coral skeletons. These feature unexpectedly high biodiversity of limestone-boring algae as well as many unknown inhabitants. Our first results indicate that the diversity of algal endoliths may be linked to environmental conditions, but this hypothesis needs further testing.

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Evolution of environmental traits in reef algae

  1. 1. HEROEN VERBRUGGEN, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE
  2. 2. Talk  contents   Niche  evolu1on   +  impact  on  biodiversity   Limestone-­‐boring  algae  
  3. 3. Vanessa  Marcelino  Lennert  Tyberghein   Joana  Costa   Niche  Evolu,on   Boring  Algae  
  4. 4. Zachos  et  al.  2008.  Nature  451:  279   Evolu1on  of  clima1c  niches  –  context   Global  SST  decreases  through  Cenozoic  
  5. 5. Bio-­‐ORACLE   Tyberghein  et  al.  (2012)  Glob  Ecol  Biogeogr  21:  272  
  6. 6. Halimeda  –  species  diversity  map   map  by  Tom  Schils  
  7. 7. SST  affini1es  modeled  along  tree   C1   C2   C3   C4   C5   Verbruggen  et  al.  (2009)  Global  Ecol.  Biogeogr.  18:  393-­‐405  
  8. 8. How  does  evolvability   of  thermal  niches  come  about?  
  9. 9. Marcelino  et  al.  –  unpublished   Halimeda  –  microhabitat  evolu1on   Exposed  microhabitat   Sheltered  microhabitat  
  10. 10. Marcelino  et  al.  –  unpublished   Microhabitat  specializa1on  as   exapta1on  for  macroecological  shi]s   sheltered   exposed  
  11. 11. Can  niche  evolu1on  explain   geographical  pa^erns  of  diversity?  
  12. 12. low high Ti^ensor  et  al.  (2010)  Nature  466:  1098-­‐1107      —      Jablonski  et  al.  (2006)  Science  314:  102-­‐106   The  notorious  LDG   Decreasing  species  diversity  from  tropics  to  poles   Many,  many,  MANY  explana1ons  proposed     Evolu1onary  perspec1ve:  species  turnover  
  13. 13. Kerswell  (2006)  Ecology  10:  2479-­‐2488   Bimodal  la1tudinal  diversity  pa^ern   Highest  diversity  in  temperate  regions   Do  the  same  evolu1onary  processes  hold?   …but  for  seaweeds  
  14. 14. LDG  and  diversifica1on   sea  surface  temperature   diversifica1on   diversifica1on   cold   warm   sea  surface  temperature   cold   warm  int.   int.   cold   int.   warm   int.   cold   cold   int.   warm   int.   cold   λ  =  sigmoid  (  SST  )   λ  =  hump  (  SST  )  
  15. 15. Codium  -­‐  Species  diversity  map   map  by  Tom  Schils  
  16. 16. Codium  –  evolu1on  of  SST  affini1es   C1   C2   C3   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  17. 17. λ  =  constant   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Codium  –  diversifica1on  and  SST   2,500.8   ΔAIC  =  0   diversifica1on   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished   AIC  
  18. 18. λ  =  constant  λ  =  hump  (  SST  )   diversifica1on   SST  affinity  of  lineage   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Codium  –  diversifica1on  and  SST   2,500.8  2,485.1  AIC   ΔAIC  =  0  ΔAIC  =  –15.7   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  19. 19. λ  =  sigmoid  (  SST  )  λ  =  constant  λ  =  hump  (  SST  )   diversifica1on   SST  affinity  of  lineage   SST  affinity  of  lineage   SST  affinity  of  lineage   Codium  –  diversifica1on  and  SST   2,500.8   2,482.5  2,485.1  AIC   ΔAIC  =  0  ΔAIC  =  –15.7   ΔAIC  =  –18.3   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  20. 20. Codium  –  temperate  flora  is  old   C1   C2   C3   Verbruggen  et  al.  –  unpublished  
  21. 21. Conclusions  and  perspec1ves   •  Conclusions  so  far:   –  Niche  shi]s  vs.  niche  conserva1sm   –  Evolvability  and  the  microhabitat   –  Diversifica1on  relates  to  SST   –  Diversifica1on  relates  to  evolvability   •  Perspec1ves  1    ––    Joana's  PhD   –  Scale  up:  genus  ➟  order   –  Harder  ques1ons:  adapta1on  +  interac1ons   •  Perspec1ves  2    ––    Will's  PhD   –  Integra1on  with  evolu1onary  ecology   •  Perspec1ves  3    ––    go  wide   –  trace  element  u1liza1on  &  other  physiological  features   –  genome  content   –  life  history  traits  &  diversifica1on  
  22. 22. Limestone-­‐boring  algae   Verbruggen  &  Tribollet.  2011.  Curr.  Biol.  21:  R876  
  23. 23. Boring  algae:  What  are  they?   -­‐  Common  in  stony  corals  skeletons     -­‐  Underneath  the  living  coral  1ssue   -­‐  Algae,  cyanobacteria  (and  fungi)     -­‐  Siphonous  green  algal  genus   Ostreobium  is  the  most  common   boring  algae   Photo:  S.  Berrin  
  24. 24. Boring  algae:  What  do  they  do?   -­‐  Bioerosion    Tribollet.  Current  Developments  in  Bioerosion.  2008.    CaCO3  dissolu1on  &  a^rac1ng  grazers   -­‐  Low  light  photosynthesis    Koehne  et  al.  Biochim  Biophys  Acta  –  BioenergeFcs.  1999.        Absorp1on  in  far  red   -­‐  Coral  bleaching    Fine  &  Loya.  Proc  Royal  Soc  B.  2002.        Provide  alterna1ve  source  of  energy   -­‐  Holobiome    Rosenberg  et  al.  Nature  Reviews  Microbiol.  2007.    Corals  adapta1on  and  resilience   Tribollet.  Current  Developments  in  Bioerosion.2008.  
  25. 25. Boring  algae:  biodiversity   Taxonomy:  5  Ostreobium  species      O.  constrictum    O.  duerdenii    O.  okamurae    O.  reineckii    O.  quekeSi     Molecular  survey  in  Eilat     Gutner-­‐Hoch  &  Fine.  Coral  Reefs.  2011     2  species  of  coral   seven  clades  of  Ostreobium   some  rela1on  to  depth    
  26. 26. Problem  &  Goals   •  Problem:   – Unrecognized  biodiversity   – Are  they  equivalent?   •  Goals:   – biodiversity  assessment   – relate  endolith  community  structure  to   environment  
  27. 27. Environmental  sequencing  approach   Proof  of  concept  study:     3  locali1es  =>  Guam,  Mariana  Islands     10  samples:    7  Porites  rus    1  Porites  cylindrica    1  Psammocora  conFgua    1  Acropora  muricata   amplifica1on  of  3  loci,  each  ca.  300  bp   -­‐  UPA  (part  of  plas1d  23S  gene)          =>  anything  with  a  proper  plas1d  genome   -­‐  tufA  =>  green  algae   -­‐  rbcL  =>  green  algae    
  28. 28. Environmental  sequencing  approach   Quality  filtering   Opera1onal  Taxonomic  Units  (OTUs)     Assign  Taxonomy  (RDP)   Diversity  analyses   High-­‐throughput  sequencing:    mul1plexed  library    Ion  Torrent    =>    3  million  sequences    10  samples  x  3  loci  =>  100,000  reads  each  
  29. 29. What's  in  there?    Results  for  UPA   At  90%  similarity  (≈  genus  level):    608  OTUs   Chlorophytes Cyanobacteria Rhodophytes Other eukaryotes Unknown 336  unknown  OTUs   144  Chlorophytes  OTUs    30  Bryopsidales  
  30. 30. How  dominant  are  they?   Unknown Rhodophytes Chlorophytes Cyanobacteria Other Eukaryotes Propor,on  of  reads  matching  main  taxonomic  groups:   S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 Green  algae  highly  dominant.   With  tufA  marker,  we  find  121  species  of  Ostreobium.  
  31. 31. Correlates  of  community  composi1on   Principal  Coordinates  Analysis  (PCoA)   on  UniFrac  distance  matrix   =>  3D  representa1on  of  1st,  2nd  and  3rd  PCs   Polaris   CRMS   Sampling  sites   green  algae  frac1on   with  tufA  marker  
  32. 32. Correlates  of  community  composi1on   Pillar  shape   Plate  shape   PCoA  plot  on  UniFrac  distance  matrix   Host  morphology   PC1  (30%)   PC2  (24%)   PC3  (16%)   green  algae  frac1on   with  tufA  marker  
  33. 33. Conclusions  and  perspec1ves   •  Huge  unknown  biodiversity  of  boring  algae   species    ➟    higher  taxa   •  Not  homogeneously  distributed   –  Depth  (Eilat  study)   –  Spa1al   –  Host  colony  morphology   •  Perspec1ves    ––    Vanessa's  PhD   –  Be^er  sequencing  protocol   –  Hierarchical  sampling  design        ➟  patchiness   –  Depth,  human  impact,  CO2  gradients   –  Niche  models   Photo:  L.  Stravias  
  34. 34. More  perspec1ves   Genome  biology   Photobiology   Bioerosion  
  35. 35. Vanessa  Marcelino  Lennert  Tyberghein   Joana  Costa   Niche  Evolu,on   Boring  Algae  
  36. 36. Collectors:   Rob  Anderson   Elizabeth  Bandeira   John  Bolton   Francis  Bunker   Olivier  Dargent   Laury  Dijoux   Kya^  Dixon   Rainbo  Dixon       Stefano  Draisma   Cindy  Fernandez   Suzanne  Fredericq   Wilson  Freshwater   Fred  Gurgel   John  Huisman   Lisa  Kirkendale   Gerry  Kra]       Chris  Lane   Line  Le  Gall   Diane  Li^ler   Mark  Li^ler   Lydiane  Mavo   Frederic  Mineur   Klaas  Pauly   Claude  Payri       Willem  P.v.Reine   Craig  Schneider   Gary  Saunders   Thomas  Sauvage   Tom  Schils   Heather  Spalding   John  West   …  many  others  …   Collaborators:   Sofie  D’hondt   Chris  Drake   Nick  Eloot   Wiebe  Kooistra   Frederik  Leliaert   Diane  Li^ler   Mark  Li^ler   Steve  LoDuca       Chris  Maggs   Antoine  N'Yeurt   Fa1ma  Oliveira   Mariana  Oliveira   Claude  Payri   Gary  Saunders   Thomas  Sauvage   Tom  Schils       Satoshi  Shimada   Thomas  Silberfeld   Heather  Spalding   Frederique  Steen   Ana  Tronholm   Andy  Vierstraete   Brian  Wysor   Rick  Zechman  

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