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Introduction to the human body

Introduction to human body

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Introduction to the human body
The body is a very complex organism
It consists of many components
Starting with the smallest component and working towards the largest
Atoms & molecules-chemical level
Cells- the smallest structural units; organizations of various chemicals
Tissues-organizations of similar cells
Organs-organizations of different kinds of tissues
Systems- organizations of many different kinds of organs
Systems of the body
Circulatory
Respiratory
Skeletal
Muscular
Digestive
Excretory
Reproductive These organ systems are woven together because one can not work without other
Integumentary
Nervous
Endocrine
Immune
Lymphatic
Directional terms of the body
Body regions
Axial region - head, neck, and trunk which comprise the main vertical axis of our body
Appendicular region- limbs, or appendages, attach to the body’s axis
Quadrans of the body
Body cavities
Body cavities are spaces within the body.
Protect, separate , and support internal organs
Separate body cavities by Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other structures.
Cranial cavity contains brain
Spinal cavity contains spinal cord
Thoracic cavity contains heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus and several large blood vessels
Abdominal cavity, contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large
intestine.
pelvic cavity, contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the
reproductive system
Circulatory system
Contain the heart and all the blood vessels
Responsible for movement of blood, nutrients and gases
Heart pumps blood to lungs to receive oxygen and
to the rest of the body
Remove waste products
Major organs
Heart, Veins, Arteries, Capillaries, Blood
1.Heart
Size of your fist
Thick muscular walls
Divided in to two chambers
Upper chamber – atrium receives blood coming from the veins
Lower chamber- ventricles squeezes blood into the arteries
Blood
Pumps by the heart
Travel through thousands of miles of blood vessels
Carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from the body cells
Contain blood cells and plasma
Plasma
Is straw colored liquid component of blood
It contain 90-92 of water and 8-9 of solid
Red blood cells
Carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body
Take carbon dioxide and transport it
back to the lungs
About 5,000,000 red blood cells in one blood drop
White blood cells
protect the body from germs
Attack and destroy germs when they enter the body
Contain neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils
Platelets
Prevent and stop bleeding
Smallest component of blood and known as “thrombocytes”
Hemoglobin
Average Hb content is 14-16 gm/dl
Varies by gender and age
Need for carrying oxygen
ESR
ESR is the rate which the erythrocytes settle down
PCV
Amount of red cells in blood
Blood vessels
Hollow tubes that circulate the blood. There are three kind of blood vessels
Respiratory System
Situated in the thorax
Provide route for gain oxygen & excrete carbon dioxide (Gaseous exchange)
External respiration
Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
Internal respiration
Exchange of gases between the blood and the cells
Nasal cavity
Para nasal sinuses
Pharynx Upper respiratory tract
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi Lower Respiratory tract
Bronchioles
Lungs (alveoli)
Pleura
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Nose
The air is Warming by high vascularity, Filter and Moistening (humidification)
Paranasal sinuses
A group of four paired air-filled cavities
Continue with the nasal cavity by tiny opening
Pharynx
A 12 -14 cm long muscular tube. Extends from the posterior nares (base of the skull) to the level of the C6
Three regions
The Nasopharynx -Lies behind the nose above the level of the soft palate
The Oropharynx- Oral part of the pharynx
The Laryngopharynx -Opening into the larynx and esophagus.
Functions
Passageway for air and food
Warming and humidifying air
Taste- oral and pharyngeal parts
Hearing -
Speech - acting as a resonating chamber
Larynx
Produce sound. By the intermittent release of expired air(exhalation) and
vibrating vocal cord
The epiglottis.
A leaf-shaped fibroelastic cartilage
Attached to the thyroid cartilage
That covers the glottis (superior opening of the larynx) during swallowing,
Preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.
Trachea
Size – 10-12 cm long, 2cm diameter
Extend from end of Larynx (C6) to level of T5
Lies median plane in front of the oesophagus
It divides (bifurcates) into the right and left bronchi at the carina
Function
Passageway of air
Mucociliary escalator.
A defiance mechanism
Continues beating of cilia towards larynx
Maxillary sinuses
Frontal sinuses
Sphenoidal sinuses
Ethmoidal sinuses
Remove foreign particles from lungs (swallowed or expectorated)
Warming, humidifying and filtering of air
Cough reflex
Stimulate cough receptors in trachea & larynx
Nerve impulse travel to brain stem
Deep inspiration & close glottis
Contract diaphragm
Sudden forceful air release
Bronchi & bronchioles (Broncheal tree)
Trachea divides into two main (primary) bronchus
at T5 level
The alveoli are surrounded by a network of capillaries
The gases exchange takes place across alveolar and
capillary membranes
Lungs
Two lungs
Corn shaped
Composed with Bronchi and broncheoles, alveoli, connective tissue, blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves
Right lung
Divided into three lobes
Superior, middle and inferior
Left lung
Divided into two lobes
Superior and inferior.
Pleural cavity
Space between visceral & parietal pleura
Contains a small amount of pleural fluid.
Preventing friction between two layers during breathing
Respiratory mechanism
Contract respiratory muscles
Increase capacity of thoracic cavity
Reduce pleural cavity pressure than atmospheric pressure
Visceral pleura follows the parietal pleura pulling the lung
Drawing air into the lungs
Air in the pleural cavity – Pneumothorax
Fluids in the pleural cavity – pleural effusion
Blood in the pleural cavity – Hemothrax
Pus in the pleural cavity – emphyema

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Introduction to the human body

  • 1. Introduction to the human body The body is a very complex organism It consists of many components Starting with the smallest component and working towards the largest Atoms & molecules-chemical level Cells- the smallest structural units; organizations of various chemicals Tissues-organizations of similar cells Organs-organizations of different kinds of tissues Systems- organizations of many different kinds of organs Systems of the body Circulatory Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Digestive Excretory Reproductive These organ systems are woven together because one can not work without other Integumentary Nervous Endocrine Immune Lymphatic
  • 2. Directional terms of the body Body regions Axial region - head, neck, and trunk which comprise the main vertical axis of our body Appendicular region- limbs, or appendages, attach to the body’s axis Quadrans of the body Body cavities Body cavities are spaces within the body. Protect, separate , and support internal organs Separate body cavities by Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other structures.
  • 3. Cranial cavity contains brain Spinal cavity contains spinal cord Thoracic cavity contains heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus and several large blood vessels Abdominal cavity, contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. pelvic cavity, contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the reproductive system Circulatory system Contain the heart and all the blood vessels Responsible for movement of blood, nutrients and gases Heart pumps blood to lungs to receive oxygen and to the rest of the body Remove waste products Major organs Heart, Veins, Arteries, Capillaries, Blood 1.Heart Size of your fist Thick muscular walls Divided in to two chambers Upper chamber – atrium receives blood coming from the veins Lower chamber- ventricles squeezes blood into the arteries Blood Pumps by the heart Travel through thousands of miles of blood vessels Carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from the body cells Contain blood cells and plasma
  • 4. Plasma Is straw colored liquid component of blood It contain 90-92 of water and 8-9 of solid Red blood cells Carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body Take carbon dioxide and transport it back to the lungs About 5,000,000 red blood cells in one blood drop White blood cells protect the body from germs Attack and destroy germs when they enter the body Contain neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils Platelets Prevent and stop bleeding Smallest component of blood and known as “thrombocytes” Hemoglobin Average Hb content is 14-16 gm/dl Varies by gender and age Need for carrying oxygen ESR ESR is the rate which the erythrocytes settle down PCV Amount of red cells in blood Blood vessels Hollow tubes that circulate the blood. There are three kind of blood vessels Respiratory System Situated in the thorax Provide route for gain oxygen & excrete carbon dioxide (Gaseous exchange) External respiration Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood Internal respiration Exchange of gases between the blood and the cells Nasal cavity Para nasal sinuses Pharynx Upper respiratory tract Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lower Respiratory tract Bronchioles Lungs (alveoli) Pleura Arteries Veins Capillaries
  • 5. Nose The air is Warming by high vascularity, Filter and Moistening (humidification) Paranasal sinuses A group of four paired air-filled cavities Continue with the nasal cavity by tiny opening Pharynx A 12 -14 cm long muscular tube. Extends from the posterior nares (base of the skull) to the level of the C6 Three regions The Nasopharynx -Lies behind the nose above the level of the soft palate The Oropharynx- Oral part of the pharynx The Laryngopharynx -Opening into the larynx and esophagus. Functions Passageway for air and food Warming and humidifying air Taste- oral and pharyngeal parts Hearing - Speech - acting as a resonating chamber Larynx Produce sound. By the intermittent release of expired air(exhalation) and vibrating vocal cord The epiglottis. A leaf-shaped fibroelastic cartilage Attached to the thyroid cartilage That covers the glottis (superior opening of the larynx) during swallowing, Preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx. Trachea Size – 10-12 cm long, 2cm diameter Extend from end of Larynx (C6) to level of T5 Lies median plane in front of the oesophagus It divides (bifurcates) into the right and left bronchi at the carina Function Passageway of air Mucociliary escalator. A defiance mechanism Continues beating of cilia towards larynx Maxillary sinuses Frontal sinuses Sphenoidal sinuses Ethmoidal sinuses
  • 6. Remove foreign particles from lungs (swallowed or expectorated) Warming, humidifying and filtering of air Cough reflex Stimulate cough receptors in trachea & larynx Nerve impulse travel to brain stem Deep inspiration & close glottis Contract diaphragm Sudden forceful air release Bronchi & bronchioles (Broncheal tree) Trachea divides into two main (primary) bronchus at T5 level The alveoli are surrounded by a network of capillaries The gases exchange takes place across alveolar and capillary membranes Lungs Two lungs Corn shaped Composed with Bronchi and broncheoles, alveoli, connective tissue, blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves Right lung Divided into three lobes Superior, middle and inferior Left lung Divided into two lobes Superior and inferior. Pleural cavity Space between visceral & parietal pleura Contains a small amount of pleural fluid. Preventing friction between two layers during breathing Respiratory mechanism Contract respiratory muscles Increase capacity of thoracic cavity Reduce pleural cavity pressure than atmospheric pressure Visceral pleura follows the parietal pleura pulling the lung Drawing air into the lungs Air in the pleural cavity – Pneumothorax Fluids in the pleural cavity – pleural effusion Blood in the pleural cavity – Hemothrax Pus in the pleural cavity – emphyema
  • 7. Skeletal System Includes bones, cartilage, ligament and bone marrows. About 206 bones in the adult human body Bones are connected to each other by ligaments. 4 major functions protection- protect vital organs Organ are protected by skeleton brain by skull heart and lungs by ribs 2. Storage- store minerals and fat 3. Blood cell formation- make blood cells 4. Provide shape and support Bones Bones are made of calcium, mineral salt, cells and living parts They are also made of stringe like material called ‘Collagen’ Bones have a red and yellow tube called ‘marrow’ The bone marrow produce red cells and store fat The outer layer is called hard bone, the spongy bone is like a honeycomb Bone is a strong and durable type of connective tissue Joints Where 2 or more bones come together Some move- hip, Some don’t- skull 3 types of joints Sliding joints- bones slide each other (hand) Ball and socket joints- like a joystick in a computer game (Shoulder) Hinge joint- like a door hinge, flex and extends (Knee) Skull Synonym- cranium Protective cover of the brain Provide structure for face and head Consist 28 bones (Face and head) Closely fitted together Arms Consist of three main bones and 15 small bones Hand 27 bones and five fingers in each hand The hand is very flexible with lots of joints Spine Contain 33 bones (Vertebra) There are main 3 parts of the spine Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar In the center of the spine is the spinal cord
  • 8. Rib cage The ribs, the spine and the sternum combine to make up the ribcage Leg The human leg contain 4 bones Possible diseases Osteoporosis Rickets Arthritis Muscular system Specialized tissue that enable the body and its parts to move 3 types Smooth muscle- found only in digestive tract and blood vessels Cardiac muscle- only found in hearts. Blood pump when contract the muscle Skeletal muscle- muscles attach to the bones Functions Movement Maintenance of posture Heat production Protect the bones and internal organs Use to give injections (Intra muscular injections) Tendons- connect muscle to bones Ligaments- connect bone to bone Digestive system The food passes through a continues canal which is divided in to various compartments Major organs Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus Salivary gland Pancreas Liver Gall bladder Functions Ingestion of food Digest food into smaller molecules and absorb nutrients Remove undigested food from the body
  • 9. Buckle cavity The food chew and break down mechanically into small pieces Esophagus The swallowed food passes into the food pipe (Esophagus) Food is pushed down by movement of wall of the esophagus Stomach Receive the food from esophagus At the end of the esophagus it open into the stomach Small intestine It receive digestive secretions from the liver and pancreas Liver- secreta bile and add to the small intestine Bile stored at gallbladder Large intestine It absorb water and some salts from the undigested food materials The remaining waste passes into the rectum and remaining there as semi solid faeces Anus The faeced matter is removed through the anus from time to time Excretory system Remove waste products from the body Major organs Kidneys Ureters Bladder Urethra Lungs Liver Skin Excretion by other organs lungs- remove carbon dioxide and water vapor Skin- excrete water, salts, and some wastes. Remove heat of the body Liver- excrete many substances like bile pigments, heavy metals, drugs and toxins, bacteria etc… The excretory function of these are limited. Renal system has maximum capacity Process of renal system Kidneys produce the urine Nephron is the functional unit of kidney and filter the urine and waste Ureters transport the urine to the bladder Urinary bladder stores the urine until it voided Urine voided from bladder through urethra
  • 10. Nervous system Gather and interpret information Responds to the information Help maintain homeostasis Coordinates activities of other organs and systems Major organs Brain Spinal cord Nerves Diseases Paralysis Brain tumor Psychiatric disorders Alzheimer’s disease Dementia Endocrine system Regulate body activities using hormones Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells. Major organs Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Ovaries Testes Immune system Fight for foreign invades for body. Include white blood cells and macrophages Defense mechanism help to prevent from infection First line- skin, mucus membrane, hair, tears, saliva, ear Wax Second line- phagocytoses fight with the germ Cardinal signs- redness, heat, pain, swelling Third line- when first line and second line unable to fight activate The third line Get the infection and produce antibodies
  • 11. Integumentary system Organs Epidermis Dermis Sweat gland Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Blood vessels Nerves Functions Barrier against infection Help to regulate body temperature Remove excretory waste Protect against sun UV rays Production of vitamin D Possible problems Pressure ulcers Lymphatic system Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white Blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body. Include Lymph Lymph vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus Reproductive system Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. Major organs Ovaries Uterus Testes Prostate gland External genitalia Mammary glands
  • 12. Why diseases occurred Disease is a disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body. Causes of disease: • Genetic or developmental errors Aging • Infection • Poisons • Nutritional deficiencies or imbalance • Toxicity • Unfavorable environmental factors Signs of disease are objective; they can be measured. Signs of Disease: • Fever • High blood pressure • Rash Symptoms of disease are subjective. Symptoms can’t be observed by another person; but a person that is ill experiences them. Symptoms of Disease: • Dizziness • Pain • Blurry vision