Matter and Change   Physical Science     2009-2010      p. squires
Q. What is matter?A. Matter is anything that …        … has mass,        … and takes up space
Properties of Matter What is a substance? Physical Properties Chemical Properties
Physical States              What are someSolid         characteristics     Liquid         of each?            Gas        ...
Give the physical state of each of             these:    Silver            Solid    Gasoline          Liquid    Helium ...
Plasma
Physical Changes Physical changes only involve changes in  state or appearance. What are some examples of physical  chan...
Catch words for Physical       Change   Boil       •Split   Freeze     •Grind   Melt       •Cut   Condense            ...
Chemical Changes Chemical changes and chemical properties  always produce new substances.
Chemical or physical change ???     Food spoiling       Chemical     Nail rusting        Chemical     Oil burning      ...
Pure Substances Elements are the building blocks of matter. Atoms are the smallest part of an element.
Mixtures … do not have a definite composition … are either heterogeneous, with clearly visible components … or homogen...
Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures  containing a solute which is dissolved in a  solvent.
Classify as heterogeneous,        or homogeneous (solution)   Blood                  Homogeneous   Choc. chip ice cream ...
We separate mixtures …… based on differences in the chemical andphysical properties of the components in the              ...
How would you separate the         following? Aluminum filings and iron filings? Saw dust and sand? Salt and powdered c...
Density
What is density?Density is the ratio of      m the mass of an object                          D= to the volume of the obje...
Density calculations A student determines that a piece of an  unknown material has a mass of 5.854 g  and a volume of 7.5...
Measurements   Accuracy       and     Precision
Consider four targets and three          shots on each:Low Precision        High PrecisionLow Accuracy         Low Accurac...
Precision vs Accuracy Precision – the reproducibility of the  measurement Accuracy – the closeness to the  correct answer
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Matter and change

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Matter and change

  1. 1. Matter and Change Physical Science 2009-2010 p. squires
  2. 2. Q. What is matter?A. Matter is anything that … … has mass, … and takes up space
  3. 3. Properties of Matter What is a substance? Physical Properties Chemical Properties
  4. 4. Physical States What are someSolid characteristics Liquid of each? Gas Plasma
  5. 5. Give the physical state of each of these:  Silver Solid  Gasoline Liquid  Helium Gas  Rubbing alcohol Liquid  Air Gas  Glass Solid or liquid  Lightning Plasma
  6. 6. Plasma
  7. 7. Physical Changes Physical changes only involve changes in state or appearance. What are some examples of physical change?
  8. 8. Catch words for Physical Change Boil •Split Freeze •Grind Melt •Cut Condense •Crush Break •Bend
  9. 9. Chemical Changes Chemical changes and chemical properties always produce new substances.
  10. 10. Chemical or physical change ???  Food spoiling Chemical  Nail rusting Chemical  Oil burning Chemical  Sugar dissolving Physical  Water boiling Physical  Firefly flashing Chemical  Egg cooking Chemical  Snowflake melting Physical
  11. 11. Pure Substances Elements are the building blocks of matter. Atoms are the smallest part of an element.
  12. 12. Mixtures … do not have a definite composition … are either heterogeneous, with clearly visible components … or homogeneous, which are uniform in appearance
  13. 13. Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures containing a solute which is dissolved in a solvent.
  14. 14. Classify as heterogeneous, or homogeneous (solution) Blood Homogeneous Choc. chip ice cream Heterogeneous Brass (Cu-Zn alloy) Homogeneous Homogenized milk Homogeneous Hummingbird food Homogeneous (solution)
  15. 15. We separate mixtures …… based on differences in the chemical andphysical properties of the components in the mixture.
  16. 16. How would you separate the following? Aluminum filings and iron filings? Saw dust and sand? Salt and powdered charcoal? Water and alcohol?
  17. 17. Density
  18. 18. What is density?Density is the ratio of m the mass of an object D= to the volume of the object. V Typical units of density are grams per milliliter, g/mL
  19. 19. Density calculations A student determines that a piece of an unknown material has a mass of 5.854 g and a volume of 7.57 cm3. What is the density of the material, rounded to the correct number of significant digits? D= m/v D= 5.854g/7.57 cm3 D= .77 g/cm3
  20. 20. Measurements Accuracy and Precision
  21. 21. Consider four targets and three shots on each:Low Precision High PrecisionLow Accuracy Low Accuracy Low Precision High Precision High Accuracy High Accuracy
  22. 22. Precision vs Accuracy Precision – the reproducibility of the measurement Accuracy – the closeness to the correct answer

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