Gas laws

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Gas laws

  1. 1. Gas Laws PSquires 2011
  2. 2. Properties of Gases Gases expand to fill the container. Gases take on the shape of the container. Gases are highly compressible. (Can be liquefied at high pressure). Gases have low densities. Gases mix uniformly.
  3. 3. Kinetic Molecular Theory 1. Molecules are in constant random motion 2. A gas is mostly empty space 3. No intermolecular forces4. Collisions are elastic. No change in energy.
  4. 4. Use Kelvin degrees!K = C + 273Temperature conversion
  5. 5. Pressure MeasurementsStandard sea level pressure is… 1.00 atmospheres (atm) 760. mm Hg 760. torr (from Torricelli) 101.3 kilopascals (kPa) 14.7 lb/in 2
  6. 6. Boyle’s Law Pressure VolumeAt constant temperature, pressure is inverselyproportional to volume.
  7. 7. Boyle’s Law 1/Pressure VolumeAt constant temperature, pressure is inverselyproportional to volume.
  8. 8. Boyle’s LawAt constant temperature, pressure is inversely proportional to volume. P1V1 = P2V2
  9. 9. Boyle’s Law Problem:The pressure of some N2 gas is4.53 atm when the volume is30.0 mL. What is the pressurewhen the volume is increased to150. mL at a constant T? P1V1 = P2V2
  10. 10. Charles’ Law Volume TemperatureAt constant pressure, volume isdirectly proportional to temp.
  11. 11. Charles’ LawAt constant pressure, volume isdirectly proportional totemperature. V1 V2 T1 =T 2
  12. 12. Charles’ Law Problem:A quantity of oxygen gashas a volume of 50.0 mLat 30.0 C. Find thevolume of O2 gas whenthe temperature isincreased 150.0 C at a V1 V2constant pressure. T = T2 1
  13. 13. Combined Gas LawThe combined gas law is thecombination of Boyle’s Law andCharles’ Law. P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2

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